Tehran

The Precedent of life in Tehran dates back to 5000 BC. In January 2014, a human skeleton was discovered in Tehran’s Maulvi region about 7,000 years ago. Previously, it was believed that the history of life in the present-day Tehran region dates back to the discoveries of Gheitariyah, which belonged to 3,000 years ago.

For the first time  Tehran became the capital of Iran by Tribe Qajar. The image of Fath Ali Shah’s inscription on the rocky hill of Cheshmeh Ali, north of Rey  Zone 20 of Tehran Yaghut Hamawy, a Greek historian, arabic, in Mo’jam al-Baladan, defined the term of Tehran and described the situation in the 6th and 7th centuries of the lunar year, as follows: Tehran, in the fraction of peace and tranquility(N), and in the end, is verbally Ajami and they say “Tehran” because they do not have a tongue (Ta) in their language. This village is one of the villages of the city of Rey and is between the two stone distances.

A truthful man told Rey that this village is a large village whose foundations were founded in the underground, and nobody would go there except by the will of the people, and in most cases they would disobey the ruler of the time. He does not have a choice but tolerance with them. There are twelve neighborhoods that dispute each other with the other, and people in the neighborhood will not come to another neighborhood. It is an abundance of gardens and groves, which is like a network of buildings and is considered to be invasive.

He said the people are not cultivating them with cows despite being protected, and they do this with Bill, because they are abundant enemies and they are afraid that the cows will be plundered.

Tehran in the past was from the villages of Rey and Rey located at the intersection of Qom, Khorasan, Mazandaran, Qazvin, Gilan and Saveh axis due to the important political, commercial, administrative and religious center of the past, and claimants have always been this strategic center Invasion and attack. The village of Tehran, thanks to the abyss and underground caverns, and the abundant natural conditions and difficulty of penetrating them, is a good refuge for the officials and other people who may have been prosecuted.

On the other hand, large convoys that crossed the axes were beneficial and often attacked and abducted by indigenous people. The village of Tehran was in fact a hijacker and a hijacker of stolen goods, which continued until the Shah Tahmasb Safavid, who chose Qazvin as its capital. Tehran stood up against the attack of the Afghans (Pashtuns), so they seized the city after the capture of Tehran and destroyed its gardens and vineyards. At the time of Nader Shah, Tehran was re-named and found in the city where Nadir Shah summoned the great Shiite and Sunni leaders and offered them the Islamic alliance and the resolution of the differences.

Until the discovery of Gheitariye civilization and the discovery of works on the Abbas Abad hills, it was believed that the historical background of the city is limited to the works found near the town of Rey, but archaeological discoveries in the Abbas Abad hills, the fifth floor of the Pasdaran Avenue And lessons show that all the villages in the historic district of Qasran have sparkled a period of radical establishment of the ancient tribes and cultural creativity. In Ibn Balkhi, which dates from 500 to 510 AH, Ibn Balkhi has been named after Tehran because of its popular pomegranates. Although archaeological excavations in the 1321 solar archetypes in the village of Shemiran have not been mentioned in ancient written works of pre-Islamic Tehran, there are civilized people living in this area in the second millennium BC.

Tehran was originally a relatively large village that was located between the great and famous city of that time, Rey and the foothills of Alborz. It was first mentioned in the biography of Abu Abdullah Hafez Tehrani (born 184). After the Mongol invasion and destruction of the city, Tehran has grown more and more, with a number of displaced people displaced by Ray and its area reached 106 hectares during this period. This area during the Safavid dynasty was due to the fact that the tomb of Sayyid Hamza, the hierarch of the Safavid dynasty, was located near the prince of Abdul Azim, and Tehran had well-kept orchards.

For the first time, the first Safavid Shah Tahmasb was in 916. During the passage of Tehran, the garden and the park were abundantly liked by the city, and ordered it to kill Barrow and Gandhi. It had 114 towers with a number of Qur’anic sura and four gates to the four sides of the world, from the north to the Battle of the House and Sepah Street, to the south to Mowlavi Street, to the east to Rey and to the west to the Islamic Unity Street Shapur) was limited to today, the area of ​​Tehran during this period reached 440 hectares.

During the period of Shah Abbas I (966-1007), a palace, palaces and caravansaries were built. In the northern part of the tower and the barracks of Shah Tahmasbi, Chaharbagh and Chenarestani, later they were wall-mounted, in the form of a palace (Golestan Palace) and Rule ruled. Karim Khan, in his campaigns against Qajar Mohammad Hassan Khan in 1172, elected Tehran as the center of his career and after winning the war in the old court of Tehran, which was built during the reign of King Solomon, he gave the general rule and named the ruler of al-Raya, Took hold

  • The name of Tehran is different in its origins.

 

  1. Tehran, a warm range in front of Shemaran or Shemiran, means a cold slope.

“Teh” means warm . Such as Tehran . But  “Shem, Sem and Zem” means cold. Like: Shemran, Semirom and winter or earth.

These prefixes are not applicable today. Many of the ancient prefixes and suffixes of the ancient Persian have been forgotten today, such as (a) in Imdad and Anoushirvan.

The word (s) in (Shemiran) is like the letter (s) in the valve (dar+ che) means in small. The Dariche, for the sake of simplicity, is turned into a hatch; Shemiran is also.

Zem or Zem means cold. In Kurdish Fili (Fahlavi), the term “Zoghom”, which is the old root of “Zham”, is still used. Example:

  • Amro,Fera zoghoms. This means is very cool today.

Because they were under the ice of the Aryan Aryans, they said “Earth” under their feet. Winter is also cold weather.

Zemherir, who came to the Qur’an and some Quran scholars are confused with the root of this word, have an ancient Persian origins, not Arabic. “Zem + Herir” means “cold”.

Semirom Isfahan is also cooler than other places in Isfahan and we see that it started with the prefix “Sem”.

Tehran is a warm range in front of Shemaran, which is a cold zone. In ancient Persian, the prefixes “Tet, Qhhh and Ah” for hot places and prefixes “Shem, Sem, Zem” for cold places. Like the words Zemherir: cold / winter: cold weather / land: because it was closed under the Aryan people, it was called the earth.

  • The city of Semirom is also cold. Jahrom and Ghahavand too.

 

  1. Some of others have changed Tehran, “Tehram” means the place of tropical, in contrast to Shamiran or Shemiran, which is cold.
  2. Some believe that the whole plain, which is today called Tehran, looks good among the surrounding mountains, and therefore it is called the “Tahe-e- Ran”.
  3. Some people consider Tehran as a “foothills” because in the past, when attacking thieves and enemies, people took shelter at the end of their homes (underground). (Jawaher Kalam, Abdo

AL–‘ Aziz, History of Tehran, page 24)

  1. Mehr-e-AL’Zaman Novban, the author of the opinion on the roots of the names of cities and villages, says: Some have said that they lived in the distant dark circle of the Taheri Khorasan family here. Therefore, the city was called “Taheran.” (Propagation of cities and villages of Iran, page 49) The followers of this theory say that Taheran later became “Tehran”.
  2. Hossein Kariman writes in Ghasran: Tehran is originally from Gehran, meaning “warm place” (Geh: warm + Ran: place) against Shemiran, which is cold. Sham and Sam means cold and Shemi and Sem means cold place.

The conversion of “G” into “Gehran” to “T” is in the dialect of the people of Ghasran and3 the villages and natural surroundings. Just as the word “Gel” is pronounced “Til” or “Towell”. ((Ghasran, Volume I, pages 56 and 57)

Tehran existed before Islam, but after Islam, it became known as Tehran and became Tehran. But the names of geographers of that time have also been mentioned by Tehran. At the same time as the constitutional movement, with a lot of changes in literature and writing of the Persian language, the spelling of Tehran became commonplace, and after the establishment of the Persian Language and Literature Academy and the emphasis on the spelling of Tehran, another spelling (Tehran) was abandoned.

  • The Encyclopedia of the Islamic World on the name of Tehran has stated:

Writing the name of this city as “Tehran”, the first writings about Tehran and Tehran have been prevalent in recent years, because geographers and other authors who wrote in Arabic often used the names of Iranians who began with ” Taha “(d. Islam, first edition, vol. 8, p. 713).

Yaghut Hamavi (p. 3, p. 564), while using Tehran, considered the word Ajami, and pointed out that the people here, they say, are Tehran because they do not exist in their language.

In the works of historians and geographers and terminologists, until the Reza Shah of Pahlavi period (carved 13041320), the term “Tehran” was commonly used. Farhad Mirza Qajar (Motamed al-Dawlah, dying 1305) also came to Tehran in the book Jamjam (p. 460), but Aliqulimorza Etiadad al-Saltanah, who in 1270 became Nasir al-Din Shah minister of sciences, preferred to write the word Tehran (Etemad al-Saltanah, 1988). , Vol. 1, p. 824 825).

In the text of the constitutional constitution (14th of December, 1324) and its amendment (29th of Shaban 1325) is used by Tehran. Jamalzadeh (p. 8-10) was written in 1339 by Tehran, and although some of the writers of Tehran wrote in the Reza Shah period, they wrote some Tehran writers, for example, in the Dehkhoda dictionary, information about Tehran was given below by Tehran.

Although linguistic attempts have repeatedly been conducted on Tehran’s word, its origins and meanings are not clear. Kasravi (1335, p. 16-18; Hamoo, 1378, p. 212, 212, 219, 219) considered Tehran a “place and a warm land” and composed of two parts of the lower Teh (the warmth) and Ran (the place) It means “warmth”. He (1335, p. 9-15; Hemoun, 1378, p. 205, 212, 2116) also considered Shemiran a “place and a land of cold”, composed of two components (cold) and thigh (the place), and in general it The “cabinet” has meaning; according to him, Shemiran is the summerhouse of the Tehranians, but Shahriar Adal (p. 14-15) did not accept Kasravi’s opinion on the first part of these names.

As to attack the Mongol invasion (7th century), Tehran was still a village, and according to historic documents, the villages of Dolab and Tajrish and Vanak were more famous than Tehran …  Agha Mohammad Khan-e-Qajar chose Tehran as the capital, and in 11 Jamadi al-awal Tehran took the lead.

  • Religious places of Tehran

The mosques, Hossainiyahs(Place of Worship) and Imamzadehs(Place of Worship) are among the religious places of the capital, which include a total of 2 072 centers (1387 AD). Tehran has 1546 mosques, 487 Husseinieh, and 39 Emamzadeh. In fact, for every 3, 516 Tehranians there is a religious center. Most of the capital’s imams are concentrated in the 20th area, after which the 2nd and the 1st regions are the most imams. There are also no Imams in 12 areas.

Mosque and Sheikh Fazlollah Nouri’s house in Sangolaj, Sheikh Fazlollah Noori’s home Address: Tehran, Tehran, Sheikh Fazlollah Noori Avenue, Beheshti Avenue, Tehran, Iran (From No.2 and No.7)

  • Geography of Tehran

Tehran is located at 51 degrees 2 minutes to 51 degrees and 36 minutes east longitude and 35 degrees 34 minutes to 35 degrees and 50 minutes north latitude and its height is from 2000 meters in the highest point of the north to 1200 meters in the center and 1050 meters in the south varies. Tehran is spread across two mountain valleys and a desert along the southern slopes of the Alborz Mountains. The south of the mountains of Rey and Bibi Shahrbanoo and the plains of Shahriar and Varamin plain and the north by the mountain is enclosed. The height of several points of Tehran from the sea: Tehran from the viewpoint of the earthquake in the Pyrenean areas (8 to 10 degrees mercilly ) is included in. The faults in Tehran and the suburbs up to 150 km radius of the city center are Mashaa fault, North Tehran fault, Ray fault, Taleghan fault, Iawaki fault and Iepak fault, which is important for their behavior.

Tehran is steadily at risk of flood. The main reasons for this are the difference in height, specific climatic conditions, the existence of numerous rivers such as Karaj River, Darband River, Chitgar River, and numerous settlements, and the location of the city of Tehran at the foot of the mountain. There are also 12 water catchment areas in the city of Tehran and 14 km of flood generating strips from Darabad to the west of the Farahzad valley.

  • Protocol of Tehran
  • Rites in Tehran Province:

 

  • Nowruz
  • Nowruz celebrations are accompanied by special customs:
  • Haji Firuz

According to Abdullah Mostofi, Haji Firuz blackened his face with charcoal and soda ash, and he was wearing a horn or a cylindrical hat, made of paper or cardboard, and a comprehensive, forty-colored’ that  pendant painted Were worn.

  • Fireworks Wednesday

On this day, the people are playing fire and they are eating the so-called people of the Damavand district “Kate Ra”. On this day, the fire burns up, and it flutters and sticks out: My jaundice is from your redness.

  • Paw or pawak

The last five days of the year that the weather was cold.  Khamseh or Mastargheh were spoiled. There was a risk of freezing products in these few days. Hence, people would go to the mountain and celebrate until the weather worsened.

  • Nowruz

On the day of the Eid, people will see and visit new and clean clothes. In the past, the elderly gave the younger eyebrows and colored eggs, and generally brought sweets and snacks such as raisins, curries and cakes to visitors to the feast days. In the countryside, the funeral ceremony began at the home of Khoddood, elders and elders.

  • Thirteenth day of the new (Sizdeh be dar)

On the thirteenth day of Farvardin, the bridegroom people who came to the green house before the Eid came. They take it to the desert and pour it into water. The main food of the Thirteenth day is Vegetable Coco. On this day, various games are played along with the proper lyrics.

  • Tirma thirteen(in 13th from month’s Tir)

On the night of July 13th, people gather in every house and tell stories and tales, and they marvel at Hafez’s court. Teenagers also go to the roof, pull the scarf into the twine and throw it into the house to have the owner of the raisin house, the little peasant, and the wallet in the corner. In the area of ​​Damavand and Firoozkooh, there is also a ceremony called “play mute”.

  • Naming

On the night of the 6th night, they will give birth to a name and give birth. At the ceremony, a number of men and women are invited to dinner. Before dinner, they bring the baby out and put on a white beard in Parliament and they ask him to choose a baby for the name. Then the white beard writes a few letters on the paper and places them in the Qur’an, and the adhan will listen to the right ear and give the baby’s ear to the left ear. Following this, one of the papers is taken out of the Qur’an. He reads the name and sends the rest to confirm Salavat.

  • Ashdandany(Dandruff)

When the baby begins to brush her teeth, she will make a dent for her to make her teeth lightweight.

  • School

In the past, the student was first taught alphabet and spelling. After that, the student should bring a sugar bowl of this kind to the schoolmaster. It was a school of wood and meadow instruments that has been mentioned in folk beliefs and proverbs of wood and the kind of master. A student from among the students chose one person as a caliph. The duty of the caliph was to clean up the school, order a day to buy a schoolhouse, and gather any eve for an Edi school.

  • Yalda night(chelleh night)

People spend the first night on the night of Yalda, which is called the longest night of the year, and spend nights and nights drinking nuts, watermelon, wheat germ, walnuts and raisins.

  • Vows

Among the Tablecloth of Vows   that exist in Tehran, we can mention the following:

The table of hazrat-e- roghayyeh (pbuh): Mehr Al_’Zaman Novban writes: The vow of the table of the Most Holy Prophet is the most common and also the simplest table of vows. The time is Mondays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays, and its location is usually in places of honor such as Imam Zadeh and mosques.

Challenging Nuts: These nuts are dill, chickpeas, hazelnuts, pistachios, quiche, raisins and almonds, which vow to eliminate the problems and problems.

Freshness: One of the most popular women’s celebrations is the birthday.

  • Moharram month

One of the hallmarks of mourning for Sayyed al-Shohada is the ceremony of Ta’ziyeh. The Ta’ziyeh was held at the beginning of the year and meant the expression of the tragedy and tragedy of the family of Aba-abdollah and the tragic event of Karbala. Tazi-e-Khane peaked at the time of Nasir-al-Din Shah by building reliance on the government by Maeir al-Mamalek.

  • Games(Paly) in Tehran

The belt plays a circle in the middle. Five people stand in the circle, and 5 put belts in a circle that buckles out to the outside. People standing outside the circle try to get the belt out of the line. In this attempt, if someone who was inside was pulled out, beaten and burned. On the other hand, those who are inside, kill, beat and throw external people. When all the people of a group burn, it is a loser group. In this case, if one person out of circle kicks in to one of the people inside the circle, everyone in that group burns and loses.

  • The game of Raining jor jor

When it’s raining, the kids go to the yard alone or collectively. Stand under the rain and open both hands in a cross. They look at the sky and turn around and read:

It’s raining jor jor  / Hajjar back home / Hajar has a wedding / Have a crutch tail / We have a ride for you / we have ride for you / a razor inside your foot.

  • Play Jam Jamak Fall autumn

To begin, unanimously chooses one of the players as “Avesta”, and they all put their hands together and start reading the lyrics: Jam Jamakh leaves / my mother Zaynab Khatun / Giz has a municipality / From the mountaineer / from the black mustache / she walks off the shoulder / turquoise mustache / I go and I / I went to the pond of silver / my silver jewelery / Hajji became my backside.

When the poems are read, the children will run their fist hands. When the lyrics are over, the children must immediately pull their hands off with cleverness. From the danger of getting into the hands of the Avesta. Otherwise losers will play.

  • Some other games include:

Alak Dollak, Chogh Balls, Gal Galk, Ye Qol do Qol, Dorna Game, Dos Qale.

  • Tehran Men’s Apparel

Covers: Includes a felted hat with a short hat like a butterfly. Hassan Beygi’s hat with a taller edge, a Bhattiari hat, a hat, a hat, the upper part of which was wide and wide, and an oval hat that looked like half the egg, a hat, a cardboard hat, Pahlavi hat, scarf.

T-shirts: include shirts, pants, braids, ordinary trousers, sardari, postcards.

  • Tehran Women’s Apparel

Women’s clothing was in the Qajar period in the style of Zandieh. In this period, it was often selected for a white cloth, the height of which was most often up to the knee. On the Rubondo, there are lace pieces in front of the eyes. The female dress in the Qajar period did not differ from the previous periods, and generally the nailing and saggy neck were used back. The gossamer design, soft heel shoes, and the shoe round line represent its size. The three lines of the smallest and seven lines were the largest number of shoes.

Women’s dance shoes should also be mentioned. The women’s shirt was usually made of white velvet. As it reached the thigh. This skirt was made by riveting and called it “shilty”. A skirt was called “Pajban”. The barn was like a slipper, with the difference that it was not open in the middle and was seamed in the middle of the front and back sides.

Cover: For the cover, four tufts were cut in rectangular shape. Then they made them in the form of a triangle, and they threw it in such a way that the right angle behind the head and the other two corners fell on the chests and under the throat, and by knitting or pinching it over Tightened their heads.

  • Traditional Tehran Sports

 

  • Zorkhaneh

Zorkhaneh is the place for the Iranian sports. In this place, under a dome-shaped roof where the sport is right below it, the marshid proclaims the start of the sport with the multiplication of the private: first swim, then the desire, the wheel, the roar, the kebadha with the song along with the poems of Shahnameh And prayers of Mola Ali (AS) are some of these collective movements and the rest of the individual. At the end of the sport, the masters pray and the sportsmen go out of the hood by telling Amin and kissing the ground.

Golrizan: One of the best traits of ancient sportsmen is their empathy with each other. This feeling is reflected in the Golrizan ceremony. In this way, if one of the sportsmen with a financial background is in a hurry, they will try to resolve the problem by organizing the celebrations and inviting the various people. For this to come together in a certain day, at the end of the sport, a middleman who has more than anyone else’s respect and respect, starts rolling in the middle of the hole, and each of the invitations needs money for the individual.

Dizy, Ash Shaleh Qalamkar, Ash Zain al-Abedin, Ashkanah, Chicken Bozbash, Dampokhtak.

  • Native Iranian Literature

 

  • Accent Tehran

Tehrani dialect is one of the dialects of Persian language, which is commonly used in Iran, and is used in Iranian speech media (except local media). It is also used to teach Persian language in non-Persian speaking countries. The dialect of Tehran is in the present form of Qajar dynasty and is different from the accent of native inhabitants of Tehran.

The ancient dialect of Tehrani still exists in areas such as Shemiran but is subject to destruction.

Tehran in the divisions of the old country and before it became the capital of Iran, has been an attachment to the historical city of Ray; therefore, the dialect of the people of this city is also from the branches of the dialect of Raji or Razi, the same language as the Pahlavi language, and in the north, northwest, and western South of Iran has been. According to Shams Qays Razi, the language of the people of Ray city, including Tehran, is the border between Dari and East Pahlavi in ​​the Maghreb and southern part of Iran. Today the dialect has not survived. This dialect was heard in the languages ​​of the villagers of Dolab, Shemiran, Ken and Sulan in a few generations.

  • Dialect of tehran

Tehran in the divisions of the old country and before it became the capital of Iran, has been an attachment to the historical city of Ray; therefore, the dialect of the people of this city is also from the branches of the dialect of Raji or Razi, the same language as the Pahlavi language, and in the north, northwest, and western South of Iran has been. According to Shams Qays Razi, the language of the people of Ray city, including Tehran, is the border between Dari and East Pahlavi in ​​the Maghreb and southern part of Iran. Today the dialect has not survived. This dialect was heard in the languages ​​of the villagers of Dulab, Shemiran, Ken and Sulqan in a few generations.

  • In summary about Tehran
  1. Tehran, with a total area of ​​730 square kilometers, is the 27th largest city in the world.
  2. Tehran had the gateway for the first time in the Safavid period. Safavid Shah Tahmasb, during his reign, was ordered by Tehran to clean the city of Tehran and build six gates, due to his special interest in Tehran and its clean weather.
  3. This citadel had 114 towers in the number of Quranic surahs, and remained until the early Nasir al-Din Shah period, which was completely destroyed at that time, and instead spread Tehran and had twelve gates.
  4. When in 1788 Aqa Mohammad Khan Qajar chose Tehran as his capital, Tehran began its development and prosperity.
  5. The administrative structure of Iran is concentrated in Tehran.
  6. The Freedom Tower is the first and most famous symbol of Tehran and Milad Tower, another symbol of Tehran.
  7. Tehran ranked last year in the list of the most expensive capitals in the world in 2008.
  8. The first high-rise building in Tehran was the Plasco building on Istanbul Street, which collapsed on December 30, 1395.
  9. The last major earthquake in Tehran occurred in 1830.
  10. Geologically, Tehran is on active faults causing earthquakes and earthquakes.
  11. Tehran is among the most dangerous cities in the world for natural disasters.
  12. Life history in Tehran returns to 5,000 BC.
  13. In 2014, a human skeleton was discovered in the Rumi area of ​​Tehran, which lived about 7,000 years ago.
  14. Tehran, before it became a big city, was a village of functions of the city of Ray.
  15. Sports soccer is the first in Tehran.
  16. Islamic Azad University started its work with the establishment of Tehran unit for the first time.
  17. Since the Qajar era, Tehran has been the capital of Iran.
  18. There are 4 mice in Tehran per person.
  19. 20th Street Valiasr is the longest street in the Middle East located in Tehran.
  20. Tehran is a city of Seoul, Los Angeles, Bishkek, Dushanbe, Havana, Brazil, Khartoum, Paris, Quds, Caracas, Pertoria, Sanaa, Minesk, Istanbul, Baghdad, Hanoi, Ankara, Pekan, Budapest, Taphlis, Kabul and Moscow. Sister’s sister is closed.