Tabriz

The city of Tabriz is one of the major cities in Iran and the capital of the East Azarbaijan province. It is the largest city in the northwestern region of the country, and is the administrative, communications, commercial, political, industrial, cultural and military area of ​​the region. According to the latest census of the Iranian Statistical Center in 2011, the city of Tabriz with a population of 1494998 is the fourth most populous city in Iran after the cities of Tehran, Mashhad and Isfahan. The city is the second largest contaminated city due to the location of many mothers’ and large industrial factories, as well as the existence of more than 600 manufacturing companies. It is also the second industrial city in the country after Tehran. It is considered one of the most important migratory cities of Iran due to industrialization. . After using the Nabikram freeway, Tabriz increased its passenger capacity, after the city became the second most populous city in the country after Mashhad. In order to eradicate one from Tabriz, this city is known as a city without beggars.

The city of Tabriz is located in the west of East Azarbaijan province and in the eastern and southeast of Tabriz province. The city is bounded to the north by the Phetchin mountains and Aoun ibn Ali, from the north east to the Babayaghi and Goshen mountains, from the east to the end of the valley and from the south to the slopes of Mount Sahand. Tabriz’s climate is very cold in the winter and it is dry and hot in summer, although heat is tempered due to its proximity to Sahand Mountain and the presence of many gardens around the city.

Tabriz’s name has been registered in books and historical documents under various names such as Torres, Touraj, Tabriz and Lori. The city has been ruined and revived throughout history. The Tabriz building dates back to the Parthian and Sasanian periods; however, at the beginning of the Islamic era, there was no small village. The city flourished during the four hundred years of the “Family” and the settlement of the Arab tribe “Azde”. The peak of Tabriz’s flourishing was at the time of the Ilkhanah, at that time, the capital city was a vast territory from Nile to Central Asia. The city of Tabriz has witnessed numerous events in the past few centuries, such as occupation by foreigners and deadly earthquakes. The capital city of Aghqyunlu and Qaraqoyunlu was the first capital of the Safavid rule and initiated a constitutional revolution against the tyranny of Mohammad Ali Shah.

Tabriz is the first capital of the Shiite world. Due to its proper position, it has been in the past since the commercial centers of the region and are now one of the most important industrial centers in Iran. In the last two

centuries, the city has been the source of many social, cultural and industrial changes in the country and has played a key role in developments such as the Constitutional Revolution, the Iranian Revolution of 1979 and the modernization of Iran. The people of Tabriz now speak Azerbaijani Azerbaijani, although existing documents and evidence suggests that a Persian language with a non-Persian origin was previously spoken in the city.

etymology

According to Vladimir Minorsky, an Iranianologist, Yaghout Hamavi, reports that the name of the city was pronounced in the local language “Tabriz” at the time of visiting Jamut from Tabriz. Minorski believes that the pronunciation of Tabriz should belong to the old Azeri Iranian. This dialect is affiliated with the dialects of the Persian Gulfs of the South Caspian Sea. Or more precisely, the pronunciation of Tabriz is famous. Also, the way of writing this city in the (Armenian language) and the analysis of Armenian sentences reflects the dependence of the word Turizh on the northern Pahlavi language. Minorsky concludes in the end that this suggests that the root of the name of the city dates back to the very far, early Sassanid dynasty, or perhaps before the Parthians.

According to Mostafa Momeni, in the Islamic Encyclopedia, the native inhabitants of Azerbaijan read Tabriz as the “net” (hot Riveror spring). By the beginning of the 14th century, the villagers around Tabriz called the city a net. Even now, the people of Ganbarabad around Tabriz say this city of lace. “In ancient writings (for example, Abolfada), the name of this city has come to be” Toriz “and is still used in Kurdish and Tati” Turiz “and” Lori “languages. Lord Karzan also described Tabriz as an Aryan word for fever, called “hot and warm” and Rose and Riz, and a spit from “Pouring”, meaning “Gorarmiz”, due to the presence of its spa springs. Wilhelm Aylres, a German zealot, finds the exact origins of the Tabriz word to be difficult to find, and it is likely that Tabriz consists of two sections of fever and rose, meaning “hot water”. Tape or spit means “hot” (for example, in taftan) and tiny means “flow of springs”, such as “kariz” and “nayriz”.

In the calendar of al-Baldan (compilation in 721 AH), it has been dubbed “Touriz” in it, and in the Tale of the Book and Fiat Alyans, the writing of Ibn Saqae has also been “Touriz”. In the ratio of this name, they have been referred to as “Turizi”; as Ibn Battuteh referred to from a person attributed to Toriz: “The clerk is Amir Jalal al-Din-e- ben al-‘falaki Al-turizy”. Faust bizansi In the fourth century AD, writing Tabriz Tavrezh and Tavresh, the Tories, in the 11th century AD, wrote the name Turgai, and the entrants in the 14th century referred to it as Touraj and Duraji. It seems that the recent Djegh is derived from the Armenian folk dialect, and the original word, “D-E-Varzh”, means “It is for revenge”. According to some sources, the city was named “Shahestan” in 246 AD and renamed Bhutgir by Third Tirdad, a Parthian ruler of the region. In the Islamic encyclopedia, it is concluded that according to the Armenian sources, which considered the name of the city in the fifth century (but also the fourth) AD, “Touraj”, and that they have been pronounced “Persian” by “Touraz” and according to the common Persian words “Tabriz” and “Tabphananakan” And according to the Chalabi’s “Sistine Duquojo” (Sistēma: Fever, Duquo: Rizand), Tabriz’s name is probably “the hidden spit and heat” and was associated with “Sahand Mount volcanic movements.”

The Britannica Encyclopedia also has a similar view, and sees Tabriz as the “Thin + Thin”, which causes the heat to flow, which is probably due to the surrounding spa springs.

There is another justification for the city’s name. Hamdollah Mostofi writes about Tabriz’s point of view: “The construction of Tabriz is from Zabaydah (woman Harounalarshid). She had a fever in turn; she stayed for a few days, and, due to the delicate and delicious weather, she left her illness, set up a city in the area and named Tabriz “. Although Ahmad Kasravi in ​​the Azeri or Azerbaijani language says the recent justification is folk and false.

The city of Tabriz is a historic city, a city of epics and a city of myths and a city located on the slopes of Sorkhab Mountains, which is named after its name (Tavrys or Tavriss) from the name of this mountain of Sherchafam. Due to the special geographical and natural conditions, this city has a high economic and political significance, and the emergence of ancient civilizations such as the San and the Medes in the prehistoric times are testimony to this claim.

Recent archaeological excavations in the Mosque Bougain area have proven the existence of civilization and culture more than 4, 500 years old in the city and if the site of the fort (Taroye Tarmakis) is discovered in the current area of ​​Tabriz, its historic significance will be added. Based on the writings of historians and tourists in the post-Islamic centuries, Tabriz was not only one of the most important and reliable cities of Azerbaijan, but also one of the most important cities in the country. The passing of the Silk Road in the vicinity of it has brought about economic and cultural flourishing, and political, economic and cultural ties have brought about the transformation of the culture, civilization and customs of the people of this land, and the foundations for the creation of many sciences, schools, institutions and civil society for the first time in The country has brought the name Tabriz to the “first city” in the country. The first school, the first library, the first hospital, the first publication, the first theater, the first Baldieh and … In this city.

Tabriz Background:

The comunication of Tabriz with a group of cities and castles simultaneously with the Medieval period has been widely disputed by scholars. A number of researchers believe that the Taroi-Tarmaxis castle, named after the Sargen II inscription, the Assassin of Assyria between 705 and 721 BC, is located in the current city of Tabriz. The castle, according to the Sargent inscription, was the place where the horses of the Savarra Orrato horses were destroyed that had been destroyed in the assault by the Assyrians.

The current city of Tabriz is built on the ruins of the city of Tavrezh (Times). Tavrezh was one of the most important trading centers in the region, and it was important as a bridge between the East and the West. It was the capital of the region during the time of the sovereignty of the sovereigns of Armenia. Although Vladimir Minorsky denied this theory in the Encyclopedia of Islam, this story tells the story of the overthrow of the Ashkhanyat of the Armenian king Ardashir Babakan (the founder of the Sassanid dynasty) in retaliation for the death of Ardavan (the last monarch of Parsian), which has made the city the capital of Armenia. It is not based on the writings of the Armenian historian in the fourteenth century – in ancient sources, this is not mentioned, and this is a folk radical narrative.

In the history of Iran (published by the University of Cambridge), the city of Tabriz was founded in the early Sassanid period (three or fourteenth centuries), or most likely in the seventh century.

From the conquest of Azerbaijan by the Arabs to the ilkhanan

At the time of the conquest of Azerbaijan by the Arabs in the 22nd century AH, the attention of the Arab Corps was more than the Ardabil city, and even the name of Tabriz was not listed in the list of cities where the Persian border guard had recruited, as it was mentioned in the Book of Photogallery of Blazari. It is evident that Tabriz, as referred to by the Byzantine fascist, was destroyed in the fourth century, and during the Arab invasion there was not a small crag.

After the conquest of Azerbaijan, a group of Arabs settled in Azerbaijan. At the time of the caliphate, Mansour Abbasi (136158), and about 137 AH, a man named “Vidah” ​​from the tribe “Azde” from the famous Yemeni tribes in Tabriz, and his sons made the first wall of the city. According to Yagut Hamavi, Tabriz was a desert until it reached the age of Abdi. After his visit, his son, Wajna, built his palaces with his brothers and dragged the walls around the city. Then people came to that city. Writers such as Ibn Khardataba, Blazari and Tabari have named Tabriz among the small Azerbaijani towns.

While Moghadasi admires the city, his contemporary Ibn Hawkil (about 367 AH) sees Tabriz more than most of the small Azerbaijani towns. This city expanded from the first half of the 3rd century AH and its significance in the Azerbaijani region was so large that Motavalak Abbasi issued the decree on the reconstruction of the city immediately after the severe and destructive earthquake of Tabriz in 244 AH. Tabriz, which had been expanding and rebuilding during the reign of “Abu Mansur Wahsudan Wadi”, was again severely damaged by the earthquake of 434 AH. As Nasser Khosrow, who visited the city in 438 hectares, declared Tabriz area 1400 in 1400 steps, which means that the area of ​​the city does not appear to exceed one square kilometer. The members of the family of the Rawadan have been tabriz rulers until the 446 AH with a few interruptions.

In this year, Togrol Seljuk, Wahsudan made his father-in-law a tribute, and, according to Ibn Aitra, Tahrul in the year 450 Hijri, “Mamalan ibn Washudan” was appointed as the governor of Azerbaijan. Elb Arsalan (successor to Tugril) dismissed 463 people from the Azerbaijani government, and nearly four hundred years left the rule of the ruling family in this land.

In the historical writings of the Seljuk period, there are not many references to Tabriz. In Rawat al-Sadr, Tugrul established his marriage ceremony with the Caliph’s daughter near the city. After the death of Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi (in 525 AH), between his father, son of Sultan Mahmoud and his brother Massoud, a tension came to take over Tabriz, where he won victory and established Tabriz as the headquarters of his government. As evidenced by historical evidence, from the time of Ghezel Arsalan (582-587 AH), Tabriz became the capital of Azerbaijan forever.

At the beginning of the seventh century, the Mongols invaded Tabriz twice, but returned with compensation. In the year 627 AH, the Mongols eventually reached all of Azerbaijan, especially Tabriz.

From Ilkhan to the constitutional movement of the Tabriz Cavalry; from the outstanding literary works of the Ilkhanan period, which was compiled and written in the years 721 to 723 AH by Abu al-Majd Tabrizi in Tabriz.

The peak of the flourishing of Tabriz was at the time of the Ilkhanites, when it was the capital of a territory that had spread from Nile to Central Asia. Tabriz was the capital of Iran during the Timurid era, Qaraqvionlu and early Safavid dynasty. The city was captured by Shah Ismael in 1500 AD (906 AH) and became the first Iranian capital in the Safavid period. At that time about two thirds of the population of 200-300 thousand were Tabriz, and soon severe policies were imposed on Sunnis in Tabriz to impose a Shiite religion. The proximity of the city to the Iranian-Ottoman border caused Tabriz to be vulnerable to the threats of this government, which several times captured Ottomans until the Shah Tahmasb Safavid in 1514 AD (920 AH) transferred the capital from Tabriz to Qazvin. During the Qajar period, Tabriz was crown prince of this dynasty, crown princes of the Qajar Dynasty stayed in this city.

Tabriz played an important role in the constitutional movement, and the bravery and sacrifice of those such as Sattar Khan (National Commander), Bagherkhan (Salar National), and Sheikh al-Islam were leading the conquest movement. After the constitutional revolt by Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar, all constitutional movements in Tehran were silenced; however, in Tabriz and only in several neighborhoods, there were still those who were willing to protect the leg of this achievement. Sattarkhan and his followers in the Amirkhiz neighborhood, Bagherkhan from the streets, Maralan and Armenian neighborhoods, and about one hundred armed volunteers organized by the Armenian intellectuals from the Caucasus, began to resist and gradually joined them in several other neighborhoods. Their resistance to the pro-Mohammad Ali Shah’s forces, headed by the Imam of Friday in Tabriz, with the support of the tribal Shahsun and other defenders of tyranny, lasted for months, until the people in Isfahan and Gilan also demanded that the constitutionalists win the conquest of Tehran. In fact, the beginning of the constitutional revolt against the tyranny of Mohammad Ali Shahi was from Tabriz.

The prosperity of Tabriz’s commercial and cultural exchanges and the economic center of the city during the centuries have led to the development and expansion of the civil and social institutions of Tabriz. Especially during the Qajar period, Tabriz, due to its proximity to Russia and the Ottomans, and the proximity of the city to the West’s communications routes, has been the starting point for many advances in the country. During this period, many intellectual movements, social, economic and technical developments, as well as many civil institutions before Tehran and elsewhere in Iran, were formed in this city. Many of the earliest Iranian history such as the first printing house, the first public cinema, the first kindergarten and the first Iranian school of chorrows and dudes, modern literature, playwriting in Persian and Azeri, the first street in Iran that had electricity and … were in Tabriz.

In 1324, the Soviet-backed Soviet-Democratic People’s Democratic Sect (SSU) tried to establish a government independent of the central government of Iran, and Tabriz was the center for the activities of this group. But with the Soviet troops coming out, the sect also faced a tough defeat. The policy of the communist Soviet Union and Stalin, known as the “iron wall”, and the closure of the northern borders of Iran during this period, made a major blow to the prosperity of the city-as the center for exchanges with the northern neighbors of Iran. On January 29, 1356, demonstrations of the people of Tabriz on the occasion of the 40th day of the deaths of December 19, 1979 in Qom demonstrations and protesters virtually captured most of the city. In the first years after the 1979 Iranian revolution, the supporters of the “People’s Republic of Iran” Party created some unrest in the city, which ended with the interference of the Iranian government and the closure of the party. In the years of the Iraq war, Tabriz played a significant role in Iran, and the presence of volunteers from Tabriz during that period was worthy of attention. According to official statistics, the city’s death toll was more than 4,200 in the war.

More information about Tabriz’s  Background

Tabriz is the capital of East Azarbaijan province. At 46 degrees and 25 minutes east and 38 degrees and two minutes north latitude is located in the Greenwich Meridian, with a height of 1340 meters above sea level. With an area of ​​about 11800 km in the middle territory of Azerbaijan, in the eastern part of the Lake Urmia and 619 kilometers west of Tehran, it is located 150 kilometers south of Jolfa, the border between Iran and the Republic of Azerbaijan.

The population of Tabriz is more than one and a half million. Tibriz from the south to the single mountain range is always snowy Sahand and from the northeast to the Red Mountain of Pham Aoun Ali (Ainali). The Aji Chai (Talekhrood) grove from the north and north West of Tabriz passes through Tabriz, and after a considerable distance it flows into Lake Urmia, and Mosharrood passes through the middle of Tabriz, which is mostly waterless in different seasons.

The Tabriz period had gardens and magnificent farmsteads with numerous qanats and springs, which today all the gardens and farms have been lost or are in decline. And expanded the city’s surroundings to residential, commercial, office, and industrial areas.

Tabriz’s description of the distant past has never broken into the lines of the scriptures.

Tabriz’s background has always been in a halo of ambiguity, and the present is also a strange storyteller. The history of Tabriz in the pre-Islamic era is captured by suspicions and suspicions, and sometimes afterwards, and after the rise of Islam, its magnificent image focuses on the world and is widely known as the Qabbayeh al-Islam.

Then it connects the East with the West on the Silk Road, and its economy draws on the markets and caravansaries, which is the largest rocky area of ​​the Gothic zone, and thus the most magnificent building of the most magnificent buildings of the ages and the most progressive university of the times, Rabadi Rashidi The city of Tabriz and the name of the city are legendary, it sometimes smells, and sometimes it comes from suspicion and fanaticism.

The late Abdolali Karang writes about Tabriz in the ancient works of Azerbaijan (the historical works of Tabriz): The word Tabriz was written by Arab geographers, such as Yaghut Hamavi, as “kasr-e- Ta”, and Iranian geographers and Turks, such as Hamadollah Mostofi and Chalabi,to “fath-e- Ta “And Roman and Armenian and Russian historians like Faust, Asulik, Vartan and Khanikif to” conquer “the heart of” Ba “

Named “WoW” in the form of ” Tavrez” and ” Tavrezh”, “Tavresh,T” by Davrez.

About the construction of the city of Tabriz, Hamdollah Mostofi and Yaghut Hamoy write: Tabriz is a beautiful woman of Haroun al-Rashid. He suffered from fever and had a few days to stay there. Due to the delicate and delicate weather, the disease was thrown out and the city was built there and called it “fever”.

Olia Chalabi relates the word “Tabriz to Ducucho” (spit and throat), and this name refers to the long volcanic mountain of Sahand.

Deceased Karang adds that Armenian historians have described the name Tabriz as “Tavrezh or Dorezh”, the term “D, V,” meaning transitions: Bani Tabriz Khosrow Ershaki (233-217 AD) is the ruler of Armenia The city was founded in recognition of the revenge of the “Arbanos” or “Ardavan”, the last King of the Party of Ardashir Babakan, and called it Da-I-vrez.

The author of the ancient works of Azerbaijan writes with legend: The oldest mention of the name of Tabriz in the inscription of the Sargen II of the king of Assyria will be found, the late Orientalist of the late Vladimir Minorsky writes: “The second Sargen in 714 BC to capture the Urartu A trip to Iran’s northwest. In the current Sulaimaniyah (located in the Iraqi Kurdistan), it became part of Kurdistan. From Parsua Parsua (current Pasveh ) and the southern coast of Lake Urmia. From the eastern side of the lake, he continued his journey and opened the castle “Tarumi” or “Taroni” and “Termakis” after leaving behind the “Oshkaya” (current scuba). It is unlikely that one of these two words will be the old name of Tabriz.

As mentioned earlier, Tabriz’s history has always been in a hurry of ambiguity, and the legendary name of its foundation sometimes comes from suspicions. The fact that the Tabriz before Islam was either Abad or Abad is still not a valid court document. Even in the early days of Islam, there was no mention of Tabriz in the Arab invasion of Azerbaijan. The only accurate and documented reference is to the time of the dynasty of the bridegroom who, during the time of the caliphate of Mutawakkil Abbasi, ruled over the land of the Yemeni people in Azerbaijan, and during his time and with his children, he turned Tabriz into the city and drove away the city. From then on, Tabriz found world-famous gloomy and gloomy events. Properties that have been in Tabriz throughout history are as follows:

In the 4th century Ayatollah Khamenei called Tabriz the most famous city in Azerbaijan. Abuhughol in 367 and in 421 and Ibn Miskawayh the largest and most prosperous city of Tabriz, 438 Nasser Khosrow in Azerbaijan read.

This happened three times, and three times the wealthy Tabriz same measure will apply until the year 638 AH Mongols throughout Azerbaijan dominant and Tabriz as their capital that at the time of Ghazan Khan Tabriz finds a special glory. Shahnaz Ghazan, with its historical spectacle, stares at the eyes. Khajeh Rashid al-Din Fadlallah Minister thoughtful Ilkhan quarter Rashidi she founded the Circle in its time the largest science center – the culture is and that all glory is now the ruins of the tower of quarters Rashidi in the neighborhood of the remaining Is.

This city has spent several golden periods throughout history. The era of capital, crown prince, the era of commercial, economic, artistic and … flourishing. Once the Tabriz school in the arena has brought about a dramatic transformation, nowadays the works of the period are decorated with the museums of the world. Famous men and women have emerged from this city, the Roman national Kaaba, the mystic festival, the poets of the thinkers and elders. Therefore, Tabriz is the only city that owns the tomb of al-Sha’ra. The mausoleum of Khaghani, Hammam, Qatar, and … Finally, the last powerful author of the poetry and poetry of Shahriyar Shirin, has been spoken in that sacred place.

Although not protected from terrestrial and heavenly disasters, earthquakes, floods, infectious diseases, wars, and Tabriz are confused, but the city has always been rebellious in the words of Agha Yahya Zaka, every time under the rubble and The ashes of the former city, such as Samandry, have been lifted and lifted up, life has resumed, and has never been the subject of events and games. Mir Ali Tabrizi and Nastaliq’s line, Pierre Seyed Ahmad Tabrizi, Professor Kamal al-Din Behzad, and …. were among the artists who made a breakthrough in the arena of the art of that day.

In Safavid times, this artistic authority reached its peak in Tabriz, but the Safavid war with the Ottoman government made cotton that was found, and did not leave Tabriz and its magnificence, except for fields burned out and ruined palaces, and the capital Isfahan was moved, and as much as a teacher, an artist and a thinker, he moved to Isfahan, and the great treasure of Isfahan, which is our pride in our country, was founded by the displaced Tabriz and the artists of this field. The Safavid kings, the kings of the culture and the arts, They built a blessed city over Azerbaijan, especially Tabriz, and shadowed Isfahan.

Fundamental role of Tabriz in the movement of tobacco on the basis of evidence of the truth of the origin of the movement of tobacco from Tabriz to prove that followed Mirza Shirazi’s fatwa its famous exports Vshrh event by a researcher at the venerable Mr. Samad Sardari Nia entitled “Tabriz Movement Tobacco “has been accomplished. .

After the constitutional revolt and various events, Tabriz was considered one of the pillars of the movement throughout the country after spending 20 years to 25 years in the 1332 critical years in the National Movement of the National Awakening. The revolutionary press of Tabriz has been in those years and the meetings of the late Seyyed Ismail Peyman with Ayatollah Kashani and Dr. Mosaddegh. In the same year of June 1942, marketers closed down the bazaar and marketplace of Tabriz with major lectures and broadcasting of the Numbers The original revolutionary movements of their religion gave their religion and eventually on January 29, 1975, they crashed into the cemetery of the Imperial Foundation, 2,500 years old, and great It was so unexpected and extraordinary event that the royal regime and SAVAK confused with all its high-sounding claims are desperate to scramble up.

What went was a little bit from Tabriz and its historical cultural events. Here is a brief summary of all the great things to note. With the hope that this line will be useful for anyone who wants to introduce Tabriz’s imagery.