The palace of Hamid Ebn Ghohtabe ( past warden of Khorasan) was located in the center of green and huge garden in the beginning of third century in the part of the oldest part of nowadays Mashhad in the village by the name of Sanabad which located in the margin of Noghan in Tous province. It was popularized by the name of Harounieh tombstone by the reason of Horoun olrashid’s shrine.
The holly corpse of Imam Reza is buried in that tombstone in 203 year, and this city was popularized by Mashhad ol Reza.
Mashhad wasn’t famous in the two first centuries but it was respective as a religious place. There were some works in the Mashhad for development of thix city In the age of emirate of Amir Abdolrazagh tousi ( one of the Samani rulers and Souri Ebn Motaz). Development and requested of Haram is attended in the fifth century and Mashhad became a religious town by the name of Mashhad ol reza in the next century.
Mashhad became destroyed in 499 year by invasion of Turkmen people. But the holly shrine didn’t damage and after this confliction in 510 year, a lot of people was killed about Mashahd and there were some damages on it. Azodelding Farmarz Ali was the governor of Mashhad and he established a new border about Mashhad olreza nd in there was a lot of development in the Mashhad in the age of seljuks by the works of Abu Taher Qomi.
In this time, Mashhad was insulated from invasive and destroys and the destroy attacks of Turkmen didn’t damage to this city. In the age of Kharazmshahian Mashhad was the center of attention of emirates and rulers.
In the attack of Mogul to the tous, Mashhad was sage from damages and it increased the population by attracting refugee immigrants. Invasive of Teimouri Iranshah’s army in 791 year and destroy of it, cause the increasing immigration to the tous.
In the age of Shahrokh Mirza, Mashhad was developed and it has a new border about the city. In this time, Mashhda was the religious capital city and in the age of Baysonghor mirza and other teimuri rulers, there were a lot of works for developing and decorate of holly shrine and mashhad city.
Mashhad became developed city dramatically By establishing the Goharshad jame mosque and Darolsiadeh, Dorolhefaz porches and the religious schools such as Parizad and king mosque and Chahr bagh and other buildings in the whole of holly shrine and in the city.
Mashhad was attacked by uzbeks at the end of Teimourial age and in the safavieh age. After the attack of Abdolmoment khan uzbek’s army in the 977 yeare, there were the maximum damages to holly shrine and the properties of people and holly shrine and decorates of it was stolen and a lot of people were killed and mashhad become destroyed.
But the damages are impaired by the attention of kings and safavie empires and there was some serious works for developing the buildings about holly shrine. Atigh Apron is built as a set by four porticos and some new buildings were established such as Allah Verdi khan’s dome and atigh apron minaret. Domes were built by gold and tiling and scrolling in different parts of holly shrine could develop that.
Mashhad became more development by creating schools and cistern, bathroom and inn and supply of drinking water and the building of mosque and establish the main street and the population was increased and it popularized by the religious pole of iran.
In the afsharieh ages Mashhad was the center of political and ruling and it became developed by establishing esmail talaie sofa and gilding in old minaret in abbasi porch and building jewelry marks and assignment of them to the razavi works.
In the rest of afsharieh agesa, jewelry of marks and holly shrine are stolen by the reason of arguments by Nadershah successors.
In the Ghajarieh age, other parts are auditioned to this holly places and New apron (Azadi Aprone) was established and mashhade became more development by making and installing steel marks and gold and silver doors in darolheefaze porches and installing the first clock and creating electric factory and attending to the welfare of visitants and beautification of the city.
In this age, mashhad was invasion by Turkmen people and it damaged by the revolt of Salar and other occurs such as invasion to the holly shrine (1320 year) and occupation of the city in the first world ware.
In the Pahlavi age, new buildings and streets are established in mashhad in Museum apron was built and the building was built for the library of holly shrine and the Darolsharaf, Darolzohd and Darolsorour porches and a square in the whole of holly shrine. Mashhas was developed by estabilishing streets, squares and new schools, hospitals and providing healthy,services and cultural possibilities.
Establishing airport, rail way stations and roods can attracts travelers and visitants to the mashhad and different welfare centers such as hotels and motels are established in different points of Mashhad specially in the whole of holly shrine. One of the most important event in mashhad were Gohar shad mosque event, second world ware and Islamic revolution.
Mashhad city was the most important religious pole in the country after victory of Islamic revolution and cultural, welfare and service accessories were developed. Different places of holly shrine became more beautiful by different scheme in the whole of places such as Darolrahme, Darolejabe and other buildings and mashhad became more attracted by visitants and travelers.
Increasing the population of visitants and travelers causes that mashhad carried a lot of welfare, service and cultural schemes.
Mashhad words means the presence and martyrdom and it pluralized by Mashhad words. Mashhdad and Mashahed in the 3 year is referred to the shrine of imams and prophets and other holly persons.
In that time, there were Mashhad Morghab in Fars and Mashhad mihane ( Abusaeid Abulkheir’ shrine) and tous or razavi mashhad in the khorasan. Ali bn mousa al reza is buried in the Harouni shrine of sanabad after martyrdom by abbasi mamoun in 202 year.
After that Sanabad Noghan was called by the name of Mashhad al reza and it developed specially in the age of Safavi shah tahmasb and the people of tous was immigrants to the Mashhad and this city called mashhad after some years. The name of Mashhad was called for the first time by king Mahmoud Ghaznavi.
The geographical location
mashhad city is located in the south of Kashfroud and it has a bout 1015 meters altitude from the see and it located in the 37 degree and 16 minutes of northern latitude and 49 degree and 36 minutes eastern longitude and the distance of it to Tehran is 913 kilometers. Mashhad is located on the ways of Torkestan, Afghanestan, Hendoustan and Balouchestan and this city was the small village by the name of Sanabad till 202 year.
Before developing of the mashhad, tous was the center of khorasan and in the Mojam ol boldan and Nezhatolgholub wrote that: tous is the city in khorasan province and the distance of Neishabour was 10 mile and it includes two cites one of them is Taberan and other is Noghan. The villages of tous are more than 1000 and it vectored in the age of Osman ebn Afan and the shrine of Haroun ol Rashid and Ali ebn mosa al reza were there.
History of Mashhad
Mashhad before islam:
Nowadays Mashhad is located in the tous and it has an old history however forming civil history of Mashhad by this name is referred to the beginning of third century and it is compliance to martyr of holly corpse of Imam Reza.
Tous is called by this name because the holder and the first ruler of that was a person by the name of Tous ebn Nozar and he was the popular person in the group of Kekhosro ( the king of Kians). There isn’t any thing in the history of this city except some legends but by noting to the documents we can guess that this city was one of the encirclements in the way of Gorgan and Neishabut to the Marv and Balkh and it was the famous towns of the big Khorasan.
Mashhad in Islami period:
By referring to historians, when third Yazdgerd escaped from the army of arab muslims , they went to the Khorasan. The army of muslims by the governing of Ahnaf ebn gheis ( the officer of victory in khorasan) pursued them. By pursuing Yazdgerd went to the Tous and he wanted to the governor that to shelter him. But the governor (Kanarang) returned Yazdgered from tous to Marve by the reason of tous doesn’t have the capacity of big inns of king and in the other hand sheltering to the king can increase the attacks of muslims army. The ruler of marv went for welcoming to the Yazdgard at the first time but finally he refused Yazdgerd and the last king of Sasani is killed in 31 years by a miller.
Kanarang tous was jobber ruler and it feels danger from the letter of Abdollah ebn Amer and he wanted a apportune from muslim armies and it committed that he would help muslims in victory of Neishabour if they accepted his suggestion. Then he did this work and he received the emirate of Neishabour.
By this tricking, kenarangs people kept their influence to the touse and remained their till the final age of Omavian and overcoming Abumoslem armies in the 129 years and leaved there after attacking Abumoslim commanders.
Before noted that in the beginning of Islam, there isn’t any city by the name of Mashhad. In the now location of this city, there was unknown village by the name of Sanabad and it was in the places of Tous and Haroun went to Iran by the aim of modifying the situations in the whole of Khorasan and he became ill and he dided and buried in the palace of Hamid ebn Ghohtabe that was located in this location. After martyr of Imam raza, they decided to buried him in the next of Haroun’ shrine.
These shrines have usual forms about 500 years and after that this location called Mashhad ol reza ( it means the location of martyr Imam raza) and they wrote that for the first time there was a silver mark by an Iranian person by zaroastrianism religion and he wasn’t muslim. And the silver mark was for the border of shrine. He healed from a difficult disease by resort to Imam reza and for appreciated to the imam, he made this mark in the suljik age.
Abn Batoute wrote in his logbook that he traveled to the holly shrine in 734 and the shrine made from wood box and it covered by silver. In the safavie age they pay attention to these topics and a gold mark is provided and installed for that shrine.
The natural geographical of Mashhad
Mashhad city was the center of Razavi Khorasal province in 1392 year by accounting separate part of Tous and Gherghi by the area of 328 kilometer squares in the east north of Iran and the longitude of 59 degrees and 2 minutes till 60 degrees and 38 minutes and latitude 35 degree and 43 minutes till 37 degrees and 7 minutes and it located in the Abriz of Kashfroud between Binaloud and Hezarmasjed mountains. The altitude of city from the level of sea was 999 meters and the distance of them from Tehran was 966 kilometers.
Plain of Mashhad was a part of Kashfroud basin and the area of that was about 16500 kilometer squares and this area is included 5000 kilometer squares of plain and other allitudes. This plain includes Mozdouran plain and in the second age it is related to the sources of ground water. This plain involved hard carbonate sediments and it can create ground waters by the reason of empty areas. Some of the plate of water sources in this city can be pointed to the river of Kashfroud. This river has a lot of water in the past but the level of ground water was fall and at the result drainage are cut and when there was a huge floodwater, the water is entered from the branches.
The weather and climates.
The weather of Mashhad is mild and variable and winds is in the direction from east south to west north. In the year of 1391 the maximum of temprature degree in the summer was 36 centigrade degree and minimum temperature degree in the winter was 5 centigrade degree. Mashahd town is located in Mediterranean location by spring rains.
Mashhad has high grow rate of population in the last year. In the first official census of iran that is done in 1335, Mashhad was the forth populous of iran after Tehran, Tabriz and Isfahan by 241989 people. In the next census that is done in 1345 year, this city was third city after Tehran and Isfahan in Iran and in the census of 1355 year, Mashhad was the second populous of Iran after Tehran and it remained second populous in 1390 year.
Based on general census of demographic and homes in 1390 year, the population of Mashhad ( by ignoring Tous and Gherghi) was a bout 2766258 persons. Based on the last estimations, the population of Mashhad was 2906782 person in 1392 year.
rusty tissues and non official homes in Mashhad city
mashhad city in fronted matginalization and non official habitiations such as other metropolises of the country. Damaged locations covered places such as north Helali, east north, east and east south of this religion city and Aljazaier sets was one of the unconventional places even in welfare locations. By noting these three indexes we have smallness of parts and dimension of properties ( all most them are true in Tehran and other metropolises. And in old and historical cities , the dimension of properties are bigger).
Instability: lacking of the resistance and instability of buildings.
Impermeability : lack of providing suitable services (relief and infrastructure) in critical situations. Old tissues in the Mashhad town is assigned about the 8 percent area of Mashahd and 19 percent of the population is located in these parts and experts believed that old tissues have a lot of problems in addition to social, cultural and economical. In fact old tissue is exited from economical cycle and there isn’t any renovation measures and at the result the investments are exited.
By noting the definition of non official inhabition that are tisues that located villages immigrants and poor people in the towns and created without license and exite of official programming and rule in civil development in the borders of cities and in out of there. So these tissues doesn’t have ownership documents and it has some shortages such as physical features, environmental and having services and civil infrastructures such as old tissues. By assigning 13 % of the area of Mashhad city, there are 32 percent of population of the city.