The emergence of the island and its geological structure about 200 million years ago, following the movements of the vast continents and their storms on each other with folding and mountainous phenomena, the Arabian Peninsula along with the continental shelf of Africa towards North moved, and as a result (about 65 million years ago) it separated from Africa and connected to Asia. The pressure from the effect of this movement, which entered the southwest from Iran, led to the massive fracture of this part of the Iranian plateau in the Zagros heights and its mountain range was perpendicular to this pressure, in the direction of the northwest – southeast. . The maximum altitude of the Zagros Mountains resulting from this mountain range, Dena peak, is 4409 meters high in kahkiluyeh va boirahmad.
The height of the Zagros Mountains from the Dena summit gradually decreases in the direction of the Persian Gulf, and its continuation in the deep waters of the Persian Gulf hides in the form of fissures underwater. Kish Island and other islands of Hormoz Strait in the Persian Gulf are part of the anticlines of these folds and of the Zagros structures. The Honduran and Lavan islands in the northwest and southeast of Kish are close to the other zagros anticlines.
After the formation, the Kish was sometimes reduced by a change in the water of the Persian Gulf and its upper (which was relatively long-term) was initudited to a little depth of water. The relative heat of these times, a little depth of water and abundance, and other favorable environmental conditions, the most suitable bed for the growth of corals, Aquacites, and other dispersals, shells and other praises and aquatic (on the surface of the island, in the water), and created a compact cortex from their remote calcareous rocks on the surface of coral in the surface of the island.
position of Geolocation and topography
Kish Island with a total area of 91 square kilometers, a coastal area of 43 kilometers and an almost oval shape, is located 18 kilometers from the port of Gorda (the port of Aftab), the continental land of Iran – in the Persian Gulf. Kish is located in the first quarter along the coast of 1359 kilometers south of Iran at the mouth of the Persian Gulf and is located near the end of the waterway in the Strait of Hormuz. The north latitude is 32 26 ° and its eastern longitude is 58 53. It is 15.55 km in the direction of the western coast – to the east coast (the coral complex – Hoor Square). The maximum width of the island is 7/7 km along the southern coast to the north coast (between the customs harbor and the lighthouse). The island’s surface has no special topography, such as mountain phenomena and even high hills. Kish International Airport is located in the center and in its high section, about 40 – 35 meters high. The island’s highest slope is from the north of the airport to the beach (Hotel Shayan).
Geographical and climatic features
Kish Island is a small drows of a ship sitting in the warm and shallow water of the Persian Gulf, the climate of the climate (micro-chemical) of Kish is strongly dominated by the phenomena of a large blue bed, which is a very important range of its changes in its daytime temperatures in the year. The island water isolated water is more highly higher (higher than 4%) (Distance is 2.5%). The difference in average daily average island throughout the year is less than 9 to 10 degrees, and the temperature crash is never at the glance or zero.
According to meteorological data, the average moisture content per kilogram of hot dry air on the island is 15 grams and July is about 25 grams. The weather in Kish is mild and pleasant in the months of October to April, and in this time it is in desirable environmental conditions. From May to September, the weather is warm and sultry, and the average daily temperature of the island is roughly the same for these months. In May, as the sea water is still cold and low relative humidity, the air is almost dry and its wind is mild, cool and breeze, and its weather is delicate and delicate, and its environmental conditions are very favorable.
The temperature difference between the hottest and coldest months of the Kish is about 16 degrees. Meanwhile, it has the lowest evapotranspiration of 12%, the coolest and driest month of the island, and the month of August, with the most evapotranspiration, with a fluctuation of 28%, with the highest evaporation and the warmest month of the island. High evapotranspiration in August, due to the occurrence of occasional rainfall, is unaffected by the monsoon storms affected by the humid air flow in the Indian Ocean.
The rains of randomly, the mainly flooded and flooded in a short time, often wash the soil and is fading from the soil due to the heat of the surface of the earth, while at the same time it is the cause of these years of self-esteem and mercy of mercenary that it has enough benefit and inhibited with the creation of water and large large and small dams. With the Kish al-Qa’m, it is still the head of the lower salt domes, but so fortunately, the earthquake of the island is not high, so so happily, the earthquake of the island, so that their influence on the basement does not increase salinity and heavy to heavy salts and can not be heavily in the water after the rain of salinity and low maximizations with its aging, and maximizes heavy salvation in the water, and its maximum of heavy salts in the water is very low and low maximizer of the island
Forerunner of Persia in the ages and centuries
The island and the situation of the natural history of Kish were briefly reminded. But we have not believed in written works from the past of his social ancient history (probably not). What is certain is that Kish has had written works from the past, and these works may have been lost due to the aggression and invasion of the aliens and the people of the other lands. Kish in the turmoil of the storms of events and events The times had been destruction and destruction, and with the ability to repeat the attackers and the devotion of aliens, he trapped in line with each other, and with all these failures, as more of other Farsh, such as the same Gulf, Hormuz, who is the Persian Gulf of Al-Qa’an al-Qa’an, Harms, who are the flag of Persian sovereignty.
It has always been the worstning of the events of the overwhelming events and after the passage of that hard, the denial of the head of the bright and the basis of the continuous soil of Iran and the permanent representative of the sovereignty of the Persian Gulf. The history of Kish’s history has been joined by the ancient Iranian history. What is certain is the first dimers of this way, due to the geographic characteristics of the Kish Island, especially its close proximity to Iran, and that they still did not have to reach the middle of the width of the seas of the seaside and oceans, and they should be able to pass through the water beaches to water, food and other gaps of sea journey from the islands. The Kish Island was always a major base of storage with its geographical location, the global boom and nearby security and security and abilities, and its proximity to drought and security and their abilities.
The strategic position of Kish
At the time of the kings of Ilam and Assyria, and the collapse of the civilization of that day, especially the civilization of the Ilamites and Sumerians, was very important, and Kish was deeply influenced by the cultures of these civilizations. The path of most of the early elementary ships and the early days of the old days that came from the city of Cars and directly to the Persian Gulf. And from the Persian Gulf, the route of the Fars were track of the northern coasts, Hormoz and Qeshm Islands in the Gulf of Kurdish and Kish, at the end of the end of the range, were their main stops to provide needs and exchanges of commercial sales and the secured bases of the time. Kish was in the course of the emergency of the Medes, the Pars, and in particular the era of Elam’s kings and, after the other parts of the Iranian planetary, and even the era of the Iranian planetary, and in the same age of the Iranian planetary, as part of the other parts of the Iranian plateau.
From a political-economic point of view, Kish was more or less subordinate to Ilam’s civilization. And with the extinction of this civilization, Kish lost his privileged position. Once upon a time, there was a disturbance in the hands of the rulers and rulers who were subordinate to the aggressors. And with the overthrow of the Sumerians on this line and the throne of the Achaemenid monarchy and their brilliant civilization, which was extended to much of the world that day. And its prosperity lasted about 220 years. And the world of that day was transformed by the influence of this civilization, the Persian Gulf, in its brightness, had the most advanced construction of that day for shipping, marking, installing lanterns and other facilities and equipment. Obviously, Kish Island has a special position because of its proximity to Iran’s whole territory beside this blazing civilization, and this position continued until the imperial era of the Parthians and the Sasanians.
Kish at the beginning of period of Islam and later
Kish had not yet surrendered to the Arabs until the 23rd anniversary. But the Gulf islands, because they were in the direction of the Arabs’ attacks on the Persian Gulf and Kerman. Naturally, before the arrival of the Arabs, they attacked the state of Fars, and unfortunately the Jaber rulers were assigned to them. The first ruler on the Arabs was an individual from the tribe of Abdullah Qays, saying that the name of the island is based on the name of the first Islamic ruler of Qis, which later became the Kish. Of course, before the Islamic period and throughout history, Kish Island had other names in the texts of alien historians. For example, in the second century AD, the name of Kish was written in the writings of the archaic historians to Greek Arianosia Arian and finally to Venus Island, and at the time of Alexander the island of Mercury, Khomein or Khane. But Iranian historians have called it Qian, Qisan, Kiss, Guys, Qis, and some others. In the first half of the first century AD, when Iran’s wars and riots and uprisings against the Arabs in the southern and western cities of Iran, Kish suffered severe crises in the heyday of these uprisings, and the business and prosperity of his past Lost.
In the period of Safarian, especially during Al-Bavai (the first Iranian government after the Arab domination period), which was the underlying area of about 2.5 million square kilometers and Baghdad, the headquarters of Abbasi, also influenced the Salthah’s period, which was the course of the boom and promotion of culture, knowledge, prosperity and trade flour, especially the sea trade. The Kish of the Gulf of the Persian Gulf recycle his boom and in the period of the Faisa and the property of the King of Seljuk, in the sixth and seventh centuries, with the power they were in the past and seven, with the power they were in the past and the Fars, and in particular, in Cars, Kerman and the Persian Gulf, Kish came to his real position after the mountain attacks on Iran, and the boom remained after the mountain attacks on Iran.
Kish during different goverment times
Kish was in the rulers of the dynasties that were eradicated by the western merchants, the ambassadors and the European court messengers to Iran, but retired almost the same boom of the past. But this time the emergence of the phenomenon of the colonialism and the expansion of the influence of colonial and world-class countries on other lands. The boom of trade, the importance of the sea, and the eating of the Khary on the Strait of Hormuz, as an important economic and strategy of the Strait, such as the Strait of Strait of Hormuz, such as the Island of Storms, Hormuz, especially Qeshm, was considered to be the permanent and temptation of European and European persistence and the field of competition, and their field of competition, and the existence of their central governments, the existence of the non-compassionate rulers and the passion of the Iranian punishments, which was a strong and coherent force of the Islamic affairs, who was strong and coherent force in the reach of the Gulf and coherent force of reaching the Gulf of the Gulf and the coastal, and easy to reach the collapse of European Gulf and in the field of coaling.
Kish experienced a very difficult time during the upheaval and overtaking, domination and liberation from the constraints of foreigners. During the reign of Shah Abbas Safavi, Nadir Shah, Karim Khan Zand, loads of foreigners’ exile. During the reign of Shah Abbas, the occupying Portuguese, with the bravery of the famous Iranian sardar Imam Ghali Khan and his tongue, were severely defeated and exited from some Iranian islands such as Qeshm.
From Qajar to today
Seven years after the death of Karim Khan, the rioting of the claimants of the monarchy and the period of instability that had begun since the early Qajar period began. The Persian Gulf was in its worst political, security, and socioeconomic conditions, and its islands (including Kish) saw this instability as severe injuries. The British, from this chaos which they themselves caused and in order to achieve their purpose, furthered this turmoil, first occupied Qeshm Island and converted it to the base of the naval fleet, into other islands. .
The encroachment of the Portuguese, the British, the pirates and the Sheikhs and the Sultan Muscat, most of them provoked by the British, made the Gulf sea completely insecure, and this was the same as the British demand for this excuse (1286 AH 1248 / 1869 / M) Sheikh Bahrain (which was under the protection of Iran) to accept its subjection, and to remove the island from the authority of Iran. In these steep political and political developments in the Persian Gulf, the economic and social conditions of the island of Kish were the result of the fact that the Persian Gulf bride, with all its legendary reputation and wealth, and the past commercial position, during the early constitutional revolution, with only 25 USD 1,000 to be sold by Mirza Ibrahim Khan Ghavam al-Dawlah to Mohammad Reza Khan.
Kish during the former regime (Pahlavi reign)
During the reign of Reza Shah, the rule of Kish was almost the same as that of the Qajar period, and for some time and long the British were on the waters of the Persian Gulf and the islands of Iran for several thousand years, under the pretext of preserving security and in accordance with old contracts, especially to protect the oilfields Iran, they used their sovereignty. The presence of foreigners and their imposition had caused the Iranian islands of the Persian Gulf to gradually disappear from the inhabited land and find a half-ruined state. The market and trading in them are almost shut down.
Some of its islands turn out to be the place where exiled political prisoners are criminals. Kish Island, which at the time of Atabokan Fars was the ruler of all the Gulf islands, and even the government of Atabakan, and the Fars repository was kept there. In the past, the trade and prosperity of the merchants who lived there was a time when all of them migrated and The poverty and destruction of the island, which was the bride of the Persian Gulf, made it impossible for a few old trees and a few acres of agricultural land to be inhabited, and a small number of women and children, old men and poor and poor old women who were unable to emigrate. This situation, with more or less modest changes, continued on the island more or less from 1320 to 1347.
Beginning of developments
The year 1347 marked the beginning of administrative changes and some of the executive movements in Kish Island with the suggestions of American experts as a free-harbor tourist destination. In 1349 exploitation of the geographical conditions and nature of Kish Island was considered, and Kish was selected as the international tourist center. In the year 1351, the island became the name of the Kish Civil Organization, with a billion capital (80% of which was provided by SAVAK and 20% by the Bank of Imran and with the central bank credit obligation).
In 1352, construction and construction operations of the Kish Civil Organization began from the village of Trish in the northeast of the island, at the same time, the construction of an international airport for landing the world’s largest Concord Aircraft began in the central part of the eastern direction (the highest point of the island). In 1976, the International Tourist Center, Kish, opened its doors, and almost completed all the major structures of relatively large services.
In 1358(1980), one year after the revolution and the removal of the previous regime, Kish civil society was organized as the organization of the centers of Iran, and the world gathered it to the Ministry of Guidance, but five months later, the Revolutionary Council declared it the first free trade zone of the Islamic Republic in 1982. According to the decree of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Kish Development Organization, the “sub-units” became the Minister of Administrative Counsel. In 1365, the Revolutionary Council reopened Kish to travel, and to buy people from markets. Year 1365 is actually the year of the revival of Kish as the free zone.
From the same time, with the influx of tourists, Kish’s unceasing expansion to various commercial structures, markets, expansion of harbors, airport development, construction of new hotels, industrial and commercial activities for export and import, fresh recreational spaces , Squares, roads, green spaces, according to the needs of the population and the tourist (ascending to the island), and this activity became more and more daily. And, Kish gained positioning of its empirical index among the other free zones that formed afterwards with calculated schedules
Kish on travelogues and phenomena by historians
Kish has been described in all the works of historians, a green and lush island with pleasant air (in most of the year), all of which are celebrating the cultivation of various kinds of grains, legumes, fruit trees, especially dates on the island. Also, Kish was forced to stop in Kish by crossing the ships carrying valuable goods to tropical or tropical seas, or passing ships to supply fresh water, and possibly trade exchanges of commercial and commercial affairs. Have. Obviously, this has led wealthy rich people and merchants living in Kish to thrive on the construction of gardens and the creation of a favorable living environment and, with the help and assistance of the captains of ships and merchants, to plant trees from tropical trees far and near the globe To the island.
And for a few days, businessmen relax and relieve the fatigue of their maritime trips in the warm Persian Gulf, creating a pleasant environment, and adding to the island’s boom, boost trade. These activities in the livelihood of the island have created environments with a saffian that travelers and historians have discussed with Kish in their writings.