Kashan is one of the most important cities in Isfahan Province, located at 1600 meters above sea level, 240 kilometers south of Tehran and 220 kilometers north of Isfahan, and is connected to Tehran and Isfahan via highway and railway. Around 400,000 people live in an area of nearly 2,100 hectares. In addition to world-famous carpets, Kashan has silk and famous tile. This beautiful and beautiful city is located on the road of Kashan – Qom and on the western edge of the desert. This city has long been famous for leather textiles, ceramics, copper dishes, rose water and gardens. With its 7,000-year history, the city is considered to be the most important archaeological site. Most historians and travelers visiting this city have been named the gateway to global civilization. It also reached its peak after Islam entered Iran in the Seljuk and Safavid periods. Today we see several effects of Kashani in the world’s famous museums. Since Kashan was the favorite and popular city of Shah Abbas I Safavid, he paid great attention to it and tried to build and upgrade it in the aftermath of his death in the tomb of one of his ancestors – the 13th century.
Walking along the quiet alleys of the city, you can see the very old Squamens with mud and mud walls. A city with numerous windbreaks and exquisite landscapes, which used to work in the heat of summer in the very hot summer.
Modern industry, parallel with social progress, has played an important role in Kashan. However, in the market, handmade carpets, crochet and embroidery, rose water, perfume, pottery and other handicrafts are still the same as the former, with the same skill and beauty.
Date of Kashan
In the rainy period between the last glacial periods (geology), it seems that there was a vast sea in central Iran. The sea gradually drowned at the start of the tent, now in its place there is a large central desert, and human settlements settled in the villages around the place, as the oldest civilizations can be found on the crescent margin of the desert .
One of the oldest civilizations of this margin of silk civilization. The Silk hills, located 2 km southwest of Kashan, are one of the oldest centers of human settlement in the central plateau of Iran. About seven thousand years ago, Silk people founded the foundation of civilization, which made significant progress in different periods. Signs of this advancement can be found in the works of pottery and copper and copper objects obtained from these hills (the northern and southern hills of Silk), which is nowadays adorned by most of the reputable museums of Iran and the world. The Silk family, which has had many innovations in the industries of that era, has had cultural and economic ties with Mesopotamian civilization and other areas of Iran.
Silk civilization is of great importance to archaeologists as one of the first plain civilizations. Particularly, there were significant improvements in pottery, painting, and the use of bricks in the construction of buildings and numerous other cases. Although the traces of this civilization are suddenly lost in history, and the people of Silk are ravaged by the invasion of the Tar and the Snakes, some believe that the inhabitants of Silak after the destruction of the city and their descent to the Saran spring, especially the Noushabad, Have created villages. Due to the fact that there are no works of Achaemenid and Parthian in Kashan region, and archaeological research is very limited in this region, there is not much information about the civilization of this period in Kashan. However, the discovery of silver coins belonging to the Achaemenid and Parthian period in this region reveals the traces of Achaemenid and Selokian history. The discovery of a treasure belonging to the end of the first millennium BC in the village of Marq is a testimony to the continuation of civilization in Kashan until the late Achaemenid period. Although there is no news of the Parthian period in this area, but several centuries of history tells about the prosperity and prosperity of Kashan during the Sassanid period.
Existence of Khordamdasht and Natanz fire temples, references to Qom’s history dates back to ancient areas such as Noshabad, the news of a Sasanian settlement called Saroyeh in the Kashan region, which had been the subject of reports from historians to the early Islamic period, all testify to This is a claim.
Kashan during the Islamic era along with Qom, Isfahan, Hamedan and … are among the cities of Balad Jabal or Iraqi Ajam. Many historians have spoken about the men and the warrior of Kashan in this era (Sassanid era) who have participated in many wars (A’tham) Kufi, a great Arab historian, has spoken about 20,000 riders of Qom and Kashan warriors In the war (Nahavand) were present.
Historians and travel writers of the early Islamic era have mentioned the scorpions in Kashan and their people’s dignity as their main feature and introduced Kashan as a small city.
Kashan faced the Arabs during the first decades of the first century AD, and after being resisted by the loss of his fortresses, he was surrendered to loot, Hamdab Mostofi, at Naseh al-Kellat, built the building of Kashan in the Islamic era, Khatun, wife of Harun al-Rashid Attributes and writes in this case:
In the 2nd century AH, Muslims lived in a place called Forty Hesaran.
Kashan during the Al Boya era had a special boom, and its pottery and metalworking industry had a great reputation, as it is mentioned by Moghadasi at this time from Kashan: Kashan is a city of Abad and nice villages, many fields, a good bath and a great blessing. And has a fortress.
Kashan during the Al-Boyah period was paid more attention by the rise of the Shiite sultans and their influence and the influence of Baghdad against Baghdad, and with Qom, Enayat Al Boyeh and his scientist minister Sahib ibn Ebad were not to be missed.
With the start of the fifth century and the coming of the Seljuk rule, Kashan was gaining momentum and credibility. At that time, great men and women from the city became governed and came to high degrees. As Ravandi writes: Most of the brothels, the Mostofians, and the secretaries of the court were Kashani, the arts and sciences at this time came to an end and Kashan was the place and the source of grace. During this period, the city was developed and a large number of public buildings were constructed such as mosques, schools, khanqahs, Dar al-Shafa and the library.
Most of the buildings constructed during the Seljuk period have been destroyed and destroyed by successive earthquakes, but what remains is the development of Kashan in this era. The most important works of these monuments are the mosque, which was rebuilt during this period (Seljuk) and has a brick dome and a minaret decorated with a Kofi line dating from 466 AH. In addition to that, the minaret of the Shah’s tower, the tower of the city, the Cemetery Band and Qal’eh Jalali are among other famous monuments of this era.
During the Seljuk period of Kashan, considerable progress was achieved. The plenty of historical works in this period and the existence of numerous schools that were established in Kashan during this period, as well as the emergence of dozens of Kashani scholars at that time, have been testimony to the civilization and progress of this city. Kashan during this period was twice attacked by Miyajiq, one of the commanders of Khwarazm and Shahid Saljuk, bin Muhammad ibn al-Malekhash Seljuk, as mentioned in the Book of Al-Sadrar and the Divan of Abol-Reza Ravandi.
In both attacks, the city of Kashan has been protected by the tower, the fortress, and the foot and mouth of the inhabitants. But defenseless villages have been murdered and looted.
In the seventh century, Kashan saw many injuries with the brutal attacks of the Mongols, and part of the city was destroyed and looted, but not too late, due to the flourishing of workshops and fabrics of carpets, fabrics, tiles and pottery. During this period new buildings were built and the market expanded. At the time of Jahanshah, Qaraqvianlou also built other authentic buildings, some of which are still in existence, including the stone fields and surrounding buildings, built by Emaddin Mahmoud. After the establishment of the Mongol rule in Iran and the acceptance of Islam and Shi’ism by Mongolian Ilkhas, Kashan is considered one of the most prosperous cities in Iran. Even Ghazan Khan, the Mongolian sultan, became a specialist in Kashan after he became a Shiite scholar and built significant buildings in this city.
Mohammad ben Ali ben Soleiman Ravandi on the history of the Seljuks, Allameh Ghotb Ravandi, Sayyed Fazlollah Ziauddin Abo Al_Reza Almqih and Adib Hakim Fazloddin Kashani known as Baba Afzal Aref, the name of Abdul Razzaq Khan Kashani from the students of Ibn Arabi’s school, Azizdin Mahmud Kashani and Ghiasuddin Jamshid Kashani, a wise, astronomer and mathematician who is known for his mastery in mathematics and astronomy.
With the Safavid rule in the tenth century AH, the people of Kashan were religious believers and welcomed their rule. Although the devastating earthquake of 982 AH. He made a hard blow to the city’s monuments, but in this period of Kashan’s history in many different ways, he achieved a degree of reputation. The industry and art of knitting in this city reached the peak of flourishing, and the best and most beautiful silk fabrics, linen, velvet, and the most beautiful wool and silk carpets were woven in Kashan textile workshops. As the French traveler Shardin writes, “The foundation of the wealth and life of the people of Kashan is composed of textile and silk industries, and the fabrication of pieces of gold and silver texture.” Safavid era has been the best prosperity period in Kashan.
Dozens of historical works in the city and its suburbs and the emergence of dozens of scholars and scholars in this period all represent the golden age of Kashan in this period. The Safavid Shiite sultans, after having selected Isfahan as the capital, and Kashan, which was one of the most important Shiite centers, paid special attention to many walled and religious places in the city. The importance of Kashan in this period is such that travel writers from this city have been mentioned as the religious capital of Iran.
In the course of the course, Ka’shan market was booming. Shah Abbas established in the middle of the market four new guises, called Qaysariya, featuring luxurious houses and caravans, tens of rebuilding and rebuilding tombs, and magnificent caravansaries and mosques. . One of the most valuable buildings of this era is the Fin of the Garden, which was founded 5 km south of Kashan.
The most famous scholars of the Safavid period are:
Faqih Fath Allah Kashani, theologian, jurisprudent, interpreter, and literary writer Mulla Mohsen Feyz Kashani, who has left dozens of works in the fields of wisdom, theology, ethics, mysticism, etc., Kelim Kashani Mohtasham Kashani, the name of the Safavid era.
In the late Safavid era, Kashan was attacked twice by Afghans. One of these attacks took place at the time of Hassan-e-Khan, the ruler of Afshari of Kashan. The inhabitants of the desert villages of Kashan, such as Noshtabad and Nasr Abad, were murdered and looted, but this time also the tower and its snipers prevented the attackers from entering Kashan.
Kashan during the Qajar period slowly passes through the earthquake in 1192 AD. In the early days of the Zand dynasty, the city destroyed the city and did not boost the Safavid era, but its industries still surpassed other cities. The city was expanded at this time and many monuments were added. Among the buildings of this era are Boroujerdi, Tabatabai, Abbasid and … Aqaba Mosque and school, Imam’s school and … are the masterpieces of this era. Diola, who had seen Kashan in the thirteenth century, describes it as: houses are made with mud and mud, streets and pavements are wide and abandoned. The most important events of this period include the murder of Amir Kabir, the outbreak of the blind and the joy of the constitutionalists of Kashani. During this period, Kashan did not escape from natural disasters such as floods, droughts and famine, and thousands of people died in the accident.
During this period, there were also great scholars in this city, the most famous of which are: Professor Mullah Mehdi Naraghi, philosopher, speaker, jurisprudent, astronomer and … Mulla Ahmad Naraqi, son of Mullah Mahdi from the famous Imam The era is Muhlbib … Sharif, the religious and literary age of his age Mullah Abdul Rasul Cedani.
Kashan has enjoyed so rich and diverse historical and artistic circles that a short overview of them has a long history. The city introduces exceptional figures of faith and science and art such as: Malahmansen Feyz Ghiyasuddin Jamshid Kashani Baba Afzal Sohrab Sepehri Mohtasham Kashani Mullah Ahmad and Mehdi Naraghi and … Also brought the title of Daralmomenin The remains of them put Kashan in the ranks of the world’s richest scientific and artistic treasures.
Etymology of Kashan
There are different views about the etymology of Kashan, some of which have been modified by the shafts, and other individuals have changed from Kasrud, Kasyan, Ghassan and others. Of course, in some historical books Kashan, also called Cassan, from Kasu (a tribal name of the same name in the Aran region of the present Caucasus) is still mentioned. Still, the people of this city have their own Kashoun or Kashon which in fact Cassou’s modified.
Kashan was one of the first centers of human civilization. According to archaeological excavations in the Silk hills of Kashan, the human presence in the area reached seven thousand years ago.
History after Islam
Kashan prospered during the Seljuqs, and further developed at the time of Qareqiyunluha. To the point where the attention of scientists was. In the second half of the nineteenth and first half of the tenth century, the city had a great reputation and a densely populated city. In the 11th century and Safavid for the second time, it achieved the same degree of progress and was very famous as Isfahan, but with the severe earthquakes in 1192 AH. After an earthquake that occurred during the Qajar period, Kashan suffered from local disasters and conflicts, and saw plenty of losses.
Kashan has a population of more than 300,000 people located between the hills of Karkas Mountains and the desert desert Aran. It is ranked 11th in the industrial city of Iran, due to the fact that there are machine carpets (more than 100 factories), galvanized sheet production plant and automobile parts assembly and assembling factories. The textile industry in the city dates back to the famous woolly products, including velvet weaving, zebrafish and brilliants, which now employ more than a thousand people in textile factories. The city’s reputation is more than that of the handmade rosewood and carpet. Agricultural products can be used for all kinds of cereals and seasonal fruits. The main food is the city’s people, especially beef and beef. There are many historical and spectacular monuments in the city, including the Afine Garden, the Aqa Zargh Mosque and School, the Ameri House, the Abbasid House, the Tabatabai House, Boroujerdi’s House, the Sultan Amir Ahmad Bath.
Celebrities of Kashan
- Martyr Ayatollah Yasrabi (Rezvanullah Alayh)
- Mullah Mohsen Feyz Kashani
- Ayatullah Al_ozma Mir Seyyed Ali Yasrebi
- Fazelin Naraghian (Mullah Ahmad and Mullah Mehdi Naraghi)
- Mullah Habibollah Sharif Kashani
- Ghias Al_din Jamshid Kashani
- Mohtasham Kashani
There is a lot of talk about the etymology of Kashan. However, given the meaning of the words of Kas, the water bowl and the position of Kashan in the old days, this term can be taken from the Kas, which in principle is Kashan and over time, has been transformed into Kashan.
Linguists believe that the name of Kashan means summer houses, which were made with wood and straw. Others, however, mention the name of Kashan from words like Kasyan, Kashian, Kishani and Kahshashhan, Kazoo or Kashou.
In general, a variety of ideas have been expressed by historians and archaeologists about the meaning of the name of Kashan and its initial name, which is referred to as a few:
- Since this city has been the center for making the best tiles for centuries, it is called Kashian and Kashan.
- groups of archaeologists have come to the conclusion after archaeological excavations in the Silk hills that the name of Kashan is derived from the word Kashu or Kasu, which is the ancient tribal name that lived in Mesopotamia, and then moved to this place. The name of their place of residence is Kasyan or Kashian.
- Malek Al-Shoara-e- Bahar in his court has considered Kashan a temple and a place of festivity.
- The author of Persian Dictionary of Culture in Arabic writes: Kashan is said to be summer houses, which were made with wood and straw.
- The author of the book of historical works of Kashan and Natanz writes: Since the first settlement in this area has been made by the mythological kings along the Phineas, which have been called the rulers’ place.
Religion and language of Kashan
The religion of the people of this city is the Shi’a of the eleventh Imam, so that by virtue of its true faith, unclean dignity and unbelievable shi’a from the early days of Islam, Daralmomenin has been named as the head of Shiite cities and is referred to as goodness. In the time of Safavid, Kashan was known as the religious capital of Iran. Centuries ago, a number of Jews also lived in Kashan, many of them from the Safavid period, but nowadays a small number of them are settled in the city. Ruby Hamwi also writes in Mojtaba al-Baladan about the faith of the people of Kashan: “Some of the Alawites in Kashan are waiting for them to emerge in the morning of their next morning, and every morning, armed horsemen will go outside the city and they will be sorry”
The language of the people is Persian. But in the villages of the city, there is a common language and Tati that is commonly used in Persian words of Dari or Fars. In the history of Kashan, Zarabi writes: “The people of the block are another language that the city people do not understand the meaning of it, and it is called the common language, which has a lot of dummy names.
Population and economy of Kashan
According to the first census of the population, the population of Kashan in the year 1311 was about 40,000 people, in 1317 to 46,490 people, in 1345 to 58,428 people in 1355 in a rapid growth to 84,836 people. The population of Kashan is currently around 270,000 people.
Kashan economy has long been engaged in the agricultural industry and production of products such as cotton, onions, grains, fruits and all kinds of fruits (pomegranates, grapes, watermelons, cantaloupe, figs, etc.) and medicinal plants, spoilage and the production of flavors and crafts such as coping, , Silk weaving, velvet weaving, weaving, weaving, zilbo weaving, zaribafi and carpet weaving. Kashan’s handmade carpet industry has been a long time spoken of in the dimensions, designs, roles and colors of the artistic, economic, exhibition and scientific circles. Alas, the technology and technology of this valuable industry and business, along with its lateral professions, are in recession and oblivion. The discovery of copper, iron, sodium sulfate, marble and travertine rocks has increased the economic prosperity of Kashan and the city in recent years. Industries such as carpet, china, melamine, tiling, spinning and industrial tools are also expanding, and as a result Kashan has become one of the industrial hubs of the country.
In terms of climatic zoning, Kashan is located in the climatic zone with relatively cold winters and very hot summers.
The city of Kashan is located in the south and west surrounded by the central mountains of Iran. The hills of the mountain range generally have a subtle and humid climate, but from the north-east, which connects to the desert areas of the desert central Iran. Its air is gradually dry and burning, and the weather is warm and dry in the plain of Kashan. The main reason for the dry air of Kashan is its proximity to the Desert Desert. The air in this city also crosses the 40 ° C limit in the summer.
The winds of the desert that flowing from morning to evening can cause heat and extreme heat, and from dusk to roof, which is a breeze of dryness flowing from the direction of the mountains, it causes the weather to be tempered. The winds of the Red Wind, Wind Shahriari, Wind Sam, Wind and Wind of Qibla are the famous winds of this region, which mostly descend to Kashan.
In the area of water resources, Kashan includes rivers, deep wells, semi-deep water and fountains. The most important rivers in the city are the Hunjn, Ghahrud, Lahtiar and Cham Rud rivers, all seasonal, and there are more than 130 rivets around the city, of which 40 to 50 strands are now being exploited. There are more than eight springs beside them, among which Sulaymaniyah Fine springs are of great importance.
Kashan’s communication position
Kashan has been especially important due to the fact of being in business and communication in all periods.
It is located next to the Silk Road and has contributed a lot to the city’s prosperity and development, and there is also a significant link over the highway connecting the capital to the southern cities of the country. This is the highway of Kashan on the other side of Qom and Tehran, and on the other hand, the southern cities of the country such as Nain, Yazd, Kerman, Bandar Abbas and others. This connection has been made especially with the completion of the Isfahan Qom highway. As well as Kashan located on the Tehran Railways of Isfahan, Tehran and Yazd, Kerman has developed and expanded economically and has grown a lot.
According to the geographical map of the mapping organization, the city of Kashan has four sections.
Niasar, Qamsar, Borzak, Central and Suburbs
Based on the above, there are a total of 84 Deh Abad in Kashan. But many other villages also appear to be empty and abandoned due to various causes (lack of water, etc.), there are generally 110 to 130 villages around the city.