Isfahan

Isfahan province with an area of 107045 square kilometers (equivalent to 57.6 percent of the country’s land area) has been located between 30 degrees with the distance of 42 minutes to 34 degrees and with the distance of 27 minutes to north latitude and 49 degrees and with the distance of 38 minutes to 55 degrees and with the distance of 32 minutes to east longitude in the central part of Iran in a fertile and blessed plain andIn summary, it can be mentioned that most of the towns and villages are flooded by Zayandeh Rood river. The shape of the province extends along the latitude and longitude so  the average length is 532.5 km and the width of the province is 405 km.

Isfahan province is restrictedby the central provinces of Qom and Semnan, the southern  provinces of Fars and kohkilouyeh and Bouyer Ahmad, the easternprovinces of Yazd and Khorasan, and westernprovincesof Lorestan and Chaharmahal and Bakhtiyari.

Divisions of Isfahan Province

According to the latest divisions of the country, Isfahan Province has 24 town, 51 districts, 106 cities and 131 rural districts.

Isfahan province population

Given to the results of the census of population and housing in 2011, the population of Isfahan province is 4815863, including 2451647 men and 2364216 women, living in 1410236 households.

The population living in urban areas is 4111,355  and the population living in rural areas is 70,4508.

Weather of the Isfahan Province

The province’s weather is a desert type in which the presence of the Zagrous Mountains in the west prevents moisture from penetrating into the central and eastern parts of the province. On the other hand, the existence of plane and desert areas of the east of the province have impact on the weather of a large part of it.

The average annual rainfall in the province is 160 mm and the average rainfall in Isfahan is about 120 mm. The variety of the thermal regime in the province has been affected by mountainous and desert regions and winds in the west, so the average annual temperature in the west and south reach about 4 degrees Celsius. In different regions ofIsfahanprovince, Khor with the average annual temperature of 19.5 degrees Celsius, is warmestregion and Semirom with an average annual temperature of 6.5 degrees Celsius, is the coldest region of this province.

Several rivers, including the Marbour rivers in Semirom, Morghab, Najaf Abad, Golpayegan, etc., flow through the province. But one of the largest rivers in the central plateau of Iran is Zayandehroud river that originates from Zardkouh Bakhtiyari heights and then flows to the southwest of the province to the Gavkhouni lagoon which is located in the city of Isfahan and plays a significant role in the refreshing and greenery of the surrounding neighborhoods Particularlyin theterm of environment and economy.

Historical monuments of Isfahan

The valuable architecture artworks that have survived from various periods of the history of Isfahan are among the most beautiful and unique creatures in the world.

On one handthe mystery of the immortal glory of Isfahan’s culture and civilization must be searched in the historical background and the creation of amazing artworks of architecture and urbanism as well as the fine arts, that each of them, shineslike a lantern, in the history passage of this country, and never turns off against the storm of events and on the other hand, such a sustainability enhancement must be according to the favorable historical, continental and cultural situation of the vast Isfahan province, which is located in the center of it.

Important Historical and Famous Sight-Seeing Areas of Isfahan Province

Jom’eh Mosque of Isfahan(Jameh)-ImamSquare of Isfahan

(Naqshe Jahan Square)- Imam Mosque-Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque- Ali Qapu Palace_ Tohid khaneh Palace-Teymouri Hall – Chehelsotun Palace – Chaharbagh School – Paul Allah Verdi Khan (Sio- ce- pol Bridge) – Khaju Bridge- Shahrestan

Bridge – Menarjbanan – Wang Church – Semirom Waterfall – Bazaar- Caravansaries-Pigeon towers – Baths – Gardens – Takht-e- Foulad Tomb (steel bed Tomb)- Museums – Garden of Birds – Qadir Garden – Flower Garden – Saffeh Mountand …

Economic situation in Isfahan province

In the term of economy, Isfahan province has a privileged position in the country, with 3.2% of the land under cultivation and agriculture, and 6.5% of the total agricultural units, and in the production of several Specifically, watwered wheat has the highest yield per unit area throughout the country. Isfahan province has beenowned the  second rank with about 10,000 industrial units after Tehran province and based on the number of industrial units in the country.

Un addition in terms of employment, value added and the value of industrial production, with an annual extraction of more than 17 million tons of minerals (third rank) and about 4.5 million tons of ornamental stones (first rank) totally in all the country has been owned the second rank after the Tehran province.

Handicrafts situation in Isfahan province

In Isfahan province, 178 disciplines have been registered in the field of handicraft production, and more than 60 fields are being produced and presented to the market. (First place of the country). Handicrafts of Isfahan province include inlaying – enameling – miniature – woodcarving – Embroidery Painting and gilding–sekmeh Douzi–filigree- Woodturning- felting- Embroidered skin- making silver-emboss working- figured calico- tile and Ceramic- Carpet weaving- passementerie and …

The most important opportunities and capabilities of the province

– Special location of the province (location of the province in the center of the country and on the route of the North-South and East-West transit routes and adjacent to 9 provinces)

– existence of a strong potential for developing entrepreneurship

– Having tourist attractions in the historical, natural and constructed lands by the national and transnational individuals and the existence of more than five thousand immortal historical works and the ten thousand known works of the survivors of varioys periods in the place of the province as well as prospects and natural or constructed walkways over the past few years on the margin of the blessed river of Zayandehroud and its landscapes and turning the province into an important tourist destination of the country.

– The existence of human capital (scientific, artistic, technical, professional and managerial capacities, etc.) accumulated as a complement to capital activities in the knowledge-based economy

– existence of a strong academic capacities and science and technology centers, scientific centers, numerous research centers, technical and vocational training centers

– The existence of a capable non-governmental sector that is the fundamental for attracting foreign investment

– Establishment of mother and large industries at the national level like Zobahan, Mobarakeh Steel, Refinery, DMT, Pharmacy, Petrochemical, Aircraft and Helicopterization, Industries and Military Centers, Atomic Energy, Appropriate Roads and Approaches, International Airport, Lines Railway and, most importantly, Zayandeh Rood River … have provided good opportunities for those searching for economic activities in the province.

History of the province

Referring to historical sources, the word “Esparan” by Ptolemy, “Sepahan” in Pahlavi, “Esbahan” in Arabic and “Isfahan” is an old word, and it is most likely to be a Pahlavi word, and its older root is unknown. In the Parthian era, Isfahan was the capital and center of a large state governed by the rule of Ashkani. In the Sassanid era, Isfahan was the residence and territory of “Spooheran” or the members of seven major Iranian families who had the major occupations and royal positions. Also in this era, Isfahan was considered as the center of the gathering of the Guards and was considered a stronghold. Perhaps this was the reason why Yazdgerd III spent some time in Isfahan after the Arab defeat.

The city of Isfahan was occupied by the Arabs after the battle between the Iranian commander and the Arab commander took place and the death of the Iranian commander in the place of Rustaq-Al-Shaikh. The historians of Basra have recorded the conquest of Isfahan in the year 23 AH. After Islam, Isfahan, like other cities in Iran, was dominated by the Arabs until the early 4th century, and during the time of Mansur the Abbasid Khalifa, the ruler of the city was ordered to work toward its civilization and redevelopment. For this reason, a large castle was built in the village of Khashinan (present Ahmadabad), and a rampart was built around the city, and connected Khashinan to Judea. The city of Isfahan in the early Islamic centuries was formed by two parts of Jay and Judea. Jay was located in the eastern part of Isfahan and Jubare (Judea) on the other side of the city.

In 319 AH, Mardawij Ziyari occupied Isfahan, and chose it as the capital city, setting up a celebration of the great century in this city. In the year 327 AH, this city occupied by Roknaldullah Deylami and it was chosen as the capital city. After that, the city of Isfahan recovered its glory and became a center for gathering scholars and poets.

In 443 AH, Isfahan was conquered by Tugrul king of Seljuk. At that time, several mosques and castles were built in the city. At the time of Mlekshah the Seljuk, Isfahan was once again chosen as the capital city and another golden age began. In this period, Isfahan was considered one of the most abundant and most important cities in the world. After Mlekshah the Seljuk, his successors were settled in Isfahan.

This city was protected by the year 633 AH. At the time of the Mongol invasion, Sultan Jalaluddin Khwarazmshah made Isfahan the center of his army congregation. It took a long time to conquer Isfahan due to its solid fence, and finally, with the betrayal of the Shafees who, in disagreement with Hanafi, opened the gates of the city on the Mongol army, the city fell and the Mongols genocided the inhabitants of the city. The city was dominated by the Mongols until 639 AH. After the return of the Mongol Corps, the city of Isfahan rebounded and regained some of its past and its civilization until it was invaded by Timur’s armies. Timur attacks inflicted irreparable losses on Isfahan. It is known that after the rebellion of a number of people in the city, Timur issued a decree of massacre for their suppression. After the Mongol and Timur attacks, Isfahan rebounded due to its geographic location; during the rule of the Safavids, there was a great expansion and its population increased. Shah Abbas the Safavid seized this city and settled there for one year. The rebound period of Isfahan began with choosing the city as the capital at the time of Shah Abbas in 1000 AH.

The reason for choosing Isfahan as the capital should be far beyond the realms of the Ottoman government during the Iran-Ottoman wars. This transition was thought to be dangerous because of the geographical and geopolitical location of Isfahan and its placement in the heart of Iran and its distance from the political boundaries. During this period, the central part of the city did not have the ability to meet the new political, economical and cultural needs. A new center was created in the south of the old square and at the site of the Great Garden, the relic of Sallajqah. The economic activity of the city (market) was related with a network to the old city center, so that it attracted the most important activities while maintaining the relative activity of the old part of the city. In addition, Square of Shah Abbas and two other neighborhoods named Abbasabad or Tabriziha (for the settlement of Tabrizi merchants with Shahabbas) and Julfa (for the residence of the Armenians of the Julfa Aras, who had been moved to Isfahan to develop foreign trade of Iran) was created. The two neighborhoods were connected to other parts of the city by Chaharbagh and Alah-Wardikhan bridge (Seyose Pol). After Shah Abbas, his successors continued to develop the city.

In addition to the development of the northern parts of the city, two major residential units were created in the south of the river: one of them was Sadatabad palace and gardens constructed during the reign of Shah Abbas II and the other was Farahabad town, which was built in the southwest of the city during the reign of Shah Sultan Hussein, and It was connected to the main city by the Marnan bridge. The fall of the city of Isfahan and the extinction of the Safavid dynasty, which was carried out by the Mahmud Afghan after 6 months of siege, ended the development of the city of Isfahan in the Safavid era, and the city of Isfahan suffered a period of decline. In order to strengthen the foundations of their rule, the Afghans encircled the city center, which had a large part of the bazaar, and all the Safavid palaces and large mosques. The city of Isfahan in that era had two nesting fences, known as the barrage of Ashrafi or Afghns. In the days of Zandieh and Qajar, the capital was transferred to Shiraz and Tehran.

In the Afshariyah era, the city of Isfahan reestablished, but during the Qajar era, due to the transfer of the capital to Tehran and the rule of Zal-Al-Sultan son of Naser-ed-Din Shah on Isfahan (1271 AH), the decline began again in the city of Isfahan. It is well-known that Zal-Al-Sultan son of Naser-ed-Din Shah, sold the land and materials of the city’s historical works to the people, and sought, in any order, to secure the expenses of his army, which was one of the most vigorous units of the country.

Among the economic characteristics of the city of Isfahan during the Qajar era were the insignificant income of the land and the lack of security of the landlords. In the Pahlavi period due to historical and geographical conditions, the city of Isfahan gained importance; efforts were made to reconstruct its historical works and the industrial development of the city and region of Isfahan began. During the last two decades, the development of the city of Isfahan has been widespread and there have been some remarkable modernizations.

In general, important historical monuments in the city of Isfahan include Imam Square or Naqsh-e Jahan, Aali Qapu, Chehelsotun Palace, Monarjnban, Chaharbagh or Soltani School, Imam Mosque, Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque, Church and Ganjine  of Vank, Seyose pol or Alah Vardikhan bridge, Khaju Bridge and Isfahan Bazaar and the spectacular places of this city include Jame Mosque, Sardar Qeissria, Hasht Behesht Palace, Ashraf Hall, Baba Rukn al-Din Monastery, Imamzadeh Isma’il, Haroon Velayat, Minaret of Forty Girls and countless recreational spots including Mellat Town Gardens, Mirror House, birds garden and flowers garden. Isfahan today is one of the great and popular cities of Iran and the world.

Historical and cultural background and situation of Isfahan

Isfahan is regarded as the cultural capital of Iran, and this nickname is  graceful becausethis province is unique in cultural, artistic ad historical term in Iran and is unique in some ways in the world too. Isfahan, with its original culture and its deep and civilization, has always been gorious in a bright human sky, like a single star.

The cultural history of this city is associated to the history of Islam. As the Islamic era and the conquest of Isfahan by Muslims, the exchange of national culture with Islam quickly made this province as one of the major bases for the development of Islam.

If the story of the culture of Isfahan and its relation to Islam have beenmentioned, then the image of Salman Farsi who was the closest follower (Sahabi)of the Prophet (pbuh) of God, which has risen to the ascension of Mana al-Bait, is embodied and the militaries and seminaries of this city which, for centuries, are the hometown of the lovers of science and Islamic education has been imagined.The favorable fields of Isfahan culture, its proper geographical location and the natural coordinates with the richness of this city’s civilization, have been interwoven and have become an appropriate place for the growth of Islamic culture.

Historians, archaeologists and foreign Iranologists have identified the European century of Isfahan in the ranks of most important cities in the world’s first historic times like Beijing, Venice, Rome and Florence, and in terms of historical and Islamic significance, Isfahan has been named as the star of the Muslim world.

Isfahan city has long been the center of literature, poets, scholars and philosophers of Iran. If a great scientist like Abou Ali Sina, whose books were taught in Europe for a while, and great philosophers like Ibn Miskawayh, Ragheb Isfahani and Abou Abdoullah Masoumi had been living in Isfahan .

Poetry and Literature in the history of Isfahan have had a great boom, and apart from a few short periods, the city has always been the center of Iranian literature. The famous style of Indian- Isfahani had been invented by the poets of this era, and many famous Iranian poets like Jamaleddin Abdul Razzagh Isfahani, Kamal al-Din Ismaeil, Seyyed Ahmad Hatef Isfahani, Sheikh Mohammad Ali Hazin, Azar Bigdeli and Mohammad Hossein Saghir Isfahani arefrom thisarea.

Books likeNaghd al-Sho’ar, al-‘Arouz al-Me’ani va Al-Qaanoon fi al-Lahga, had been written in the first six centuries of Islam by  poets and literary scholars of Isfahan, which demonestrate the magnitude of the poetry of this province.

The scientific position of Isfahan was such that this provincecould send some teachers to other cities. Some of these teachers originally were fromIsfahan. Among such scholars as Hamza Isfahani, the owner of Ibn Ebad, Hafez Abu Namaim, Sheikh Bahad al-Amin, Hakim Shafa’i, Mir Mohammad Bagher Damad, Mohtasham Kashani, Mir Fandereski, Mulla Sadra, Allameh Majlesi, Seyyed Shafti, Mirza Jahangir Khan Ghashghaei, Martyr Seyyed Hassan Modares, Ayatullah Haj Rahim Arbab, Professor Jalaluddin Hamaee, Seyyed Mujtaba Nawab Safavi, Ayatullah Adib, Ayatollah Tayyeb, and dozens of Adib, another philosopher and scientist, each of them was a brilliant star who made the glory of science and literature of Isfahan, and with the compilation of books and other Scientific and cultural activities have made valuable reminiscences

Knowledge and technology of reading of the Qur’an has flourished in the early centuries of Islam in this city, and important books have been written in aforementioned area, so in the early centuries of Islam, a total of 84 of individuals who read Qur’an (Gharies)have been considered, which among  them,Naf’e ibn Abd-Al-rahman is a prominentGhari from Isfahan that he was a Companion of the Messenger of God.
In the field of publishing, Isfahan province has a long history, so the first Iranian printing house had been established in Isfahan.

For many centuries, the handicrafts of Isfahan have been known as the representative of the genuine Islamic and Iranian art in the world andwith the name of Isfahan, immediatelyhave been brought to mind of any listener, the image of the Faience mosaic, miniature pictures, exquisite carpets, figured calico, inlaying, enameling, carving, Woodcarving, diaphoretic, gilding, braid, filigree, Inlay, drawing and Gaz. The imaginative and mental characteristics of Isfahan craftsmen have made them the first place among the other cities in terms of diversity. The handmade artifacts of these artists attract the attention of Iranian and foreign buyers.

Isfahan handcrafts:

Carpet weaving: Isfahan was one of the main carpet weaving centers in the Safavid period. There were lots of workshops in this city where woven carpets were woven. Esfahan suffered so much during the Afghan incursion and lost a lot of artists and artisans, but after awhile it was able to reach its initial boom. In Qajar era, the carpet weaving of Isfahan had been revived. In the First World War, Isfahan was one of the main centers for carpet making, and after that, there were not any major economic crises in carpet weaving since the rug had been made so cheap. The number of colors selected in Isfahan carpets is very limited. The point of Isfahan’s carpets are the  type of Persian points, and their pairs are not few in numbers . Natural colors have been used hardly ever and mostly in fine carpets  the chemical mordant dye has been used. In the villages around Isfahan there are more or less carpet frames too. On these frames, carpets and rugs, the designs of Shah Abbasi and other designs of Isfahan have been woven. The colors used in them are usually herbal and are mostly used in rhubarb, turmeric, spurk, linden or gendel, walnut shells, pomegranate peel and some other herbs.

From the regions that are around of Isfahan known for carpet weaving, we must mention the Bakhtiyari rugs and the Jowshaghan carpets. Of course, Bakhtiyari rugs are more common in Shahr-e-Kord and chahamahal. The Jowshaghan carpets and rugs have been famous since Safavid period, and the history of Jowshaghan weaving is ahead of Safavid period.

But in the days of Shah Abbas, the industry had been developed a lot there. At that time, several king’s workshops were there. Jowshaghan at that time has been known as one of the regions around the Kashan. There are many carpets in the museums of Europe and the United States that have been assigned to this small village. The Jowshaghan Rugs, are fine-waved and Double Pick. The pattern of the Jowshaghan carpet is Broken Pattern, and it has probably remained steady since about two hundred and fifty years ago. Its colors have been chosen from the finest natural colors, and the colors are completely vibrant and lush.

The type of Jowshaghan wool has high quality, and the its chain warp is a Twisted yarn by hand, and the double point has been infiltrated for a while in Jowshaghan. Also in Meymeh, which is located in the distance of 3 parasang  of Jowshaghan and over the Isfahan Road to Tehran, some carpets have been waved with the broken pattern  of Jowshaghan but these carpets are fine waved and have been waved better than the carpets of Jowshaghan.

Nain is in the northern part of Yazd, on the outskirts of the Dasht -e- Kavir Desert, and previously known for the delicate worship of wives, but since when our people dressed like Europeans, the gown became obsolete. Weavers of Nain , just like the weavers of Kerman’s shawl, and velvet and beautiful weavers of Kashan, started the carpet weaving. The weaving industry in Nain had been  started on the eve of the Second World War, and because weavers normally waved the carpets with thinner wool, could wave high quality fine-waved rugs, and as the amount of production was high and the quality of carpets were high too, They found a good market for their goods which was boosted during the war. Therefore, Nain carpet, which nowadays is probably the best carpet in Iran, has been made. Nain wool is thinner and softer than other wool in Iran. The colors are not very delightful and do not have so much of variety.

Perhaps about 90% of the Isfahan carpet has a worm-colored texture that has been bounded by a trampoline or bricks, and a sharp brick margin, and with subtle colors in their tones and numbers and  perhaps in all the Isfahan carpet industry not more than 15 colors have been used. Of course, the dyers of Isfahan are responsible for this issue. But it is also the culprit who is guilty of not paying enough attention to the tones of colors which have been delivered to them.

Kashan Carpets: Historical and precious rugs of Kashan represent the beauty of Iranian art and penchant in the world. Iran’s carpet, that has been a main factor in identifying our old country to the world and now indicating the lives of all human beings of every race and nation, is beyond being the supply of living needs and the formation of precious reserves of each of the families and homes, considers as the most valuable representative of delicate human thoughts and the most beautiful  phenomena.

 But the Kashan carpet, which has embraced the reputation of the world and contains precious artworks and distinguished boards of its kind, has historically taken two various ages. and a long closure and a separation of about two centuries, separated these two stages from each other.

Though saying a definite comment on all the carpets in Kashan, which are now available in museums and collections of the world, is not easy to do, but from the technical researches of the experts and the general research and matching and the similarities, other characteristics of the Kashan’s carpet  has been found and such characteristics are so beneficial for recognizing and distinguishing these carpets.

Including: Pattern decoration and decorations and petitions and the common  stencils with Kashan’s pottery and tile which can be seen in them. Also It’s fine-waved and its velvet look, and its elegance compared to other rugs that have been woven with persian point.

Professor Pupe also has considered another feature for the pattern of Kashan carpets, like arabesque traceries of milled Toranj and delicate leaves, branches and ribbons, and …

Calico building of Isfahan Province:

Calico building is one of the most famous handicrafts that has been popular for centuries and has been customary for the Mongols in Iran. In the course of this period, for attracting the Mogul commentators of Iranians, they initiated some initiatives too, such as the invention of painting on fabric or figured calico fabric, then the industry grew in Safavid time.

Although, the glorious life of this industry was in Safavid times, and in the middle of the Qajar era, its prosperity gradually diminished. During the reign of  Shah Abbas the Great, this industry was booming and most of the men’s and women’s costumes had been made of figurative calico fabrics, and at that time they had a great reputation and were considered by the courtiers, which is why most of them were dressed in “golden figured calico “or” Echelon figured calico “. At that time, there were special places for providing the dresses of  the courtier in the Qeysariyah market of Isfahan, and the fabrics of the figurative calico, which in those days  m called “Dalgeh”, had been supplied from those places.

During the reign of Reza Shah, with special privileges provided to artisans and master of the word, particularly the figured calico artisans, this industry once again gained its past prosperity, and some of the great old masters like  Sheikh Hariri Mashhadi Abdul Khalegh, Hajj Mohammad Reza and Haj Mohammad Taghi Akhavan Chitsaz, Birjandi brothers and Sheikh Bahayi, and some other masters had been established the figured calico production company.

If there were no interest and perseverance of some of the professors of this technique , then this trace of the industry would not remain delicate, but the continued efforts of the artisans in this field and the amount of interest  for it resulted in an increase in the volume of demand for such tapestries again. For the amount of production and supply of this product was restricted, the craftsmen were forced to think and find a solution to supply with the same quality of art. In this case, the only way to create the desired designs on the mold and transfer the molds mentioned on the fabric.

The most famous master of chuck in this field was the decedent Professor Rahim Bidadi, who died many years ago. Other chuck professors are Professor Esmail Ghaleb Saz and Master Mahdi Ouliya.

Inlaying of Isfahan: Inlaying art is the leveling of objects with small triangles whose various designs have always been in regular geometric forms.

These geometric forms are arranged by placing small triangles beside each other. It can be mentioned that inlaying is a geometric pattern composed of three-sided triangles (equilateral) made of dentin, bone, wood, and brass wire, which has normally  2 mm thick that on the outer surface or the inner and outer of wooden objects stick together.
Remaining artworks like the palaces, the ruins of the Qur’an, and the sacred treasures of the fortress indicate that this art was quite prevalent in the ancient times, particularly the Safavid era, and one of its major centers was Isfahan.
But this also indicates how this art has been dying in Isfahan for only a few years, and only Shiraz has been considered as the center of this industry.

At first the initially , has been prepared using some huge triangle that had been also put beside each other, but gradually, with the development of penchant and skills of artists, the dimensions of the triangles became smaller and smaller.

Although, the inlaying art has undergone some changes since its inception. Inlaying craftsmen use a variety of ingredients to make inlaying, that is less diverse in the other hand-made industry. These materials are as follows: Beet wood, walnut wood, orange wood, jujube wood, camel’s bone, brass wire, brass layer, warm glue, cold glue, formalin, fiber and polished oil and plywood.
Other than that, they also use the fastening and hinges to complete the construction. Inlaying is used to produce a variety of products, such as photo frames, cigar box, cane, pip, cosmetics box, key padding, jumper and album cover.

In Isfahan, in addition to the Inlaying objects that has been made in Shiraz, they combine part of Inlaying artifacts with silver and enamel, that are not in Shiraz. For instance, inlaying boxes, that are applied on a miniature paintings, and oil on it.

  • Manufacture and emboss manufacturing of copper and brass products: One of the most flourishing crafts in Isfahan is the manufacture and emboss work of silver products, copper and brass. The raw materials used by the manufacturers of copper, brass and silver products include silver, copper, brass and copper and brass alloys. Some of these materials are from other countries like Yugoslavia and the rest of it are available in Iran from regional power companies and the National Iranian Oil Company, etc.

The artisans’ tool for this discipline consists of two groups. A group of tools is used in the manufacturing process, like bending machine, ferroelectric furnace, electric furnace, anvil, hammer and other group that is needed in emboss work, including bitumen, Compass, a number of iron brooms , hummer and so on. Some workshops in this field are merely engaged in the manufacturing of copper and brass products, and there are also workshops that only engage in embossing work on these metals, and the third group is workshops that work in both fields of manufacturing and emboss work together.

  • Woodcarving: The word carving means a special carving, along with up and down points on the wood, which has a long history, perhaps it is possible to start the beginning of woodcarving history when a man shaved a wood with a winning tool for the first time. Now, the art of woodcarving is still widespread, and many artists have been engaged in this art all around the Iran, but unfortunately, the use of authentic designs, such as Islamic designs and Khataya flowers and plants, is being forgotten and replaced by foreign designs and patterns. In one form of art, instead of painting the background of wood and highlighting the desired pattern, the artists use various wood with its various natural colors and put them beside each other. It is much like brass art. In this new type, bamboo wood for yellow and jujube is used for red. The background of work is more than walnut wood or the root of forest trees, that themselves have beautiful designs. The most important material on which woodcarving is wood. This wood must be tight and without any knots and points.

To do this, they use ebon walnut, betel, bacon, shamshad, and jujube and walnut. Of course, since ebony and boghm, are stronger and smooth so  they are more durable, they are mostly used in Iran for their walnut size. Woodcarving in the cities of Golpayegan and Isfahan is very important and widespread.

  • Felting: Felting is booming in Esfahan province, and one of the important centers for producing various types of felts is the city of ‘Shahreza’ .
  • Waving espadrille and making espadrille: Unfortunately, making espadrille in various cities of Isfahan is in decline. The Espadrille makers of this city, in addition to the espadrille production, also repair footwear. How to create espadrille, which involves providing the bottom layer of espadrille, and ultimately tailoring the bottom layer, as in other parts of the country.
  • gown waving in Nain: Nain is located in the east of the city of Isfahan, and the only hand made craft is gown waving in the area near the city of Nain, Mohammadiyeh.

About 25% of the produced gowns have befn sold locally, and the rest have been sent to the cities of Mashhad, Qom and sometimes to Arab countries.

  • Pottery and ceramics in Shahreza: In Isfahan, as well as in Natanz and Shahreza in Isfahan, pottery and ceramics are prevalent. Shahreza is one of the major centers of making pottery in Iran, and its products have many buyers.

Patterns that appear on ceramics in Shahrzad are often the patterns of flowers, shrubs and fish, and iron oxide, copper, manganese and cobalt have been used to color glazes. In Natanz, a ceramic workshop using Acetone also produces interesting products. There are many Pottery and Ceramics workshops in Isfahan too.

  • Skin and skin embroidery industry: The skin embroidery industry in Isfahan has been the city’s booming craftsmanship in the past, but now it has not had a long-standing boom. The skin products of Isfahan have lots of fans in terms of elegance and softness of the fiber and its uniform white color. Studies indicate that the number of skin made products have been redusing, while the reduction in the number of skin embroidery workshops indicates a decline in demand for these products too.
  • filigree in Isfahan: One of the artistic crafts of Isfahan, which has a great deal of value and production of it requires extraordinary finesse and accuracy, is a filigree, and the artisan production of this field represents their high amount of penchant.

It must be mentioned that in the production of some products, like chest and earrings, only filigree makers do not interfere, but also enameling makers and Goldsmiths will work on them and people will pay them money in return as wage.

  • needlework and crocheting: Another craftsmanship in Isfahan is needlework and crocheting.

The raw materials used for needlework makers and crocheting makers are:

Persian and foreign linen and cotton yarn (which is made from Tehran and is in the form of a collar or turtleneck), foreign linen is used and its width is about 140 centimeters. Rounded desks, undercoats and particularly designed handkerchiefs are all types of needlework makers or crocheting makers.

  • miniature in esfahan: miniature in Iran has a long history. During the reign of Shah Abbas II, which Isfahan was the capital and center of Iranian art in Iran, miniature had been developed in this city. Usually, for miniature, wood, dentin, fiber and bone have been used, and every workshop itself produce such artworks, and normally inlaying and enameling have been used for making photo frame, boxes. Also, it must be said that some Isfahan artists are worked in the field of designing the carpets, gilding and tash’eir (one of the type of miniature).
  • Silversmithing: Silversmithing is one of the most popular handicrafts in the city of Isfahan. Workshops where silversmithing is done include other works such as brazing on silver of copper and brass products.

Types of manufacturing processes of silversmiths include: tea service, pots, candlesticks and various type services.

  • Pug of Isfahan: It’s hard to say when the art of pug has become popular in Iran. There are no works of pug since before the Safavid era, and there are no significant works since the Safavid era. However, during the Qajar period, there was little pug work, and they used to pug objects such as hookah head, hookha urn and urn, and hookah louver.

The prevalence of the pug industry in Isfahan since the Pahlavi era and around 1310 AH.S and especially since this art-industry was developed by one of the well known artists in Isfahan, master Shokrallah Sani’-Zadeh, and students were educated in this school, each of which created another school in the art of pug.

Most of the things that the existing pug masters present on the market include earrings, bangle, rings, large and small makeup boxes, cans of cigarettes, inlay and pug boxes, pug plate, pug vases of various sizes, large and small pug boards that are combined with other arts such as gold blocking, inlay, and miniature. Pug can also be done on gold and silver objects, but essentially pug is done on copper.

  • Tiling: Tiling is one of the main handicrafts of Isfahan. The features of old designs and patterns have been well preserved in these products, and even today there are so many people desiring for it. Other arts that are related to tiles in this province are mosaic tiles, which include cutting and crushing tiles and putting them together. Since the roles on the tiles are somewhat complicated, tile makers can not mentally draw them, so the craftsmen order the designs to the designers. After the project was completed, craftsmen put it on the tile. To do this, they place the desired pattern on a simple tile that is already prepared, and then needle on the lines of the designe, so that the lines of the pattern remain in place of the needle, and then by pouring the coal powder on the created pores, the project is transmitted on the tile. After that, the lines are painted in taste and placed in the furnace for hardening. From now on, the product will be ready to be offered on the market.
  • Gold blocking on steel: Gold blocking is one of the methods of decorating steel objects and objects that is prevalent in Isfahan. In addition to ordinary tool, steel is also used in building banners that as we know are moved forward in front of the mourners, especially in the mourning ceremony of martyrs head Imam Hussein (AS). banner, in addition to steel blades, usually has sculptures of some birds and animals, as well as pots, cans and candlesticks, all of which are attached to the bar on which the frame rests, and on the blades of banner, especially the middle blade, the sacred names are gold blocked. At the present time, gold blocking on the sculptures of birds and animals such as peacocks, pigeons, deer, lions etc are also being developed (which in fact imitate the sculptures that are connected to various types of mourning banners).
  • Locksmithing: What surprises every foreign visitor visiting Iran is precisely the proximity of the very old things and the new and imported goods. The same is true about lock and key. Locking the treasuries and wheat stores and temples in the second millennium BC in Egypt and Mesopotamia has been common. The locks made by an Iranian locksmith are indicative of his technical genius in various ways. Some of these locks are similar to Egyptian and Greek locks, some are similar to Roman locks, some are similar to Chinese and Indian locks, and some are similar to locks used in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Industrial Revolution.

Iranian locks from the technical point of view can be divided into the following categories.

  1. a) fixed locks in (the home locks)

1- cloner

2- clone

3- spreding spring lock

  1. b) iron lock

1- spring lock (with swivel key)

2- spring lock (with push key)

3- tube lock (with swivel key)

  1. code lock (letter without key)

Oil lacquer: There are various oil lacquers, including pencil case making. The pencil case and pencil case making has a long relationship with Iranian art and culture. Because the most precious legacies of painting and decoating of the illumination and embellishment of our old artists have been engraved on the pencil cases. On the other hand, pencil case in the not far away past the most important means of writing and the best factor in provoking and encouraging people of different classes to learn and calligraphy and penmanship. Pencil case making since Safavid era increased credit. The pencil cases of this era are among the most original works of ancient art.

The Pencil cases are mainly made up of three categories (in terms of the substance)

1- wooden pencil cases

2- metal pencil cases

3- Cardboard pencil cases

In general, in terms of the size of the pencil cases, they are four types:

(a) Small pencil case, which is called the half-gain, and its dimensions are 2 ´ 13 cm.

(b) Medium pencil case or one-gain, and its dimensions are 21 ´ 7.7 cm.

(c) Normal pencil case, also called double-gain, and its dimensions are 23.5 ´ 4.4.

(d) Large pencil case that is approximately as large as a box of pencils, with a size of 5.25 ´ 28 and three gain.

Of the famous pencil case makers who made cardboard pencil cases and were famous in the Qajar era, we can refer to Mirza Abolqasem Tabataba’i, Mashhadi Hasan Tehrani, Abdolhossein Kartoobar Esfahani, and Karim Cartwajz.

Other oil-based lacquer products can be seen on the cover and mirror frame.

The lacquer made of paper is also called the Papie Mashe, which is essentially a French word, and means the compressed paper in the dictionaries. It often referes to objects whose surface is decorated with carvings and is covered with special varnish. The history of this kind of art, which in the past was called “oil painting” or “lacquer”, is not clear, but it is deduced from the works in the museums that after the Seljuk era, all written books have a simple leather or velvet cover and there was not any kind of slimi decoration.

In the Ilkhani era, during which Herat city was the center of research and writing, the cover of very authoritative books was of decorated cover and the cover of ordinary books was usually of simple leather and lacking any kind of aesthetic decoration and for decorating books arabesque lines was used and apparently Papie Mashe wasn’t common in Iran. There is some prevailing evidence that this art has come to Iran from the Safavid era and has been developed and evolved along with other types of crafts.

  • Isfahan needle art: This “art-industry” production is the monopoly of housewives and women.

At the present time, this art is used in addition to the hat for belts, shoes, vests. Patterns of needling are generally mentally inspired by the perceptions and imaginations of artists from the natural environment, and mostly include flowers of allegorical plants.

  • Binding: It is the practice of connecting all the papers of the book and putting them in a cover and protector called cover, which can be done by hand or by machine. Of course, in the old days, this was done more by the hands of enthusiastic artists, and each artistic artist created artistic works, examples of which are now available in the museums.

The earliest copies of the covers were from the seventeenth century Biblical narratives written in Egypt, and papyrus paper. They were covered with leather and leather was used to tie it.

The covers can be divided into different types depending on the type of construction, each of which has been developed over time due to the progress of the art of painting.

1- Fuel covers

2- decorated covers

3- lacquer covers

  • Zarihh making: In the Persian term, Zarihh means an object designated as a guard on the grave and around the grave which is sometimes accompanied by titles such as the Moderator Safeguard. In Farsi Dictionary today, it is stated: “Zarih is a networked box which is installed on the grave of important religious people.”

The points to be considered in the construction of the Zarih: the sanctity, the impossibility of using the face in the designs, the inscriptions of the Qur’an and gold, to mention the surahs of Yasin and al-Rahman (the verse of purification, the verse of light, the numbers used and their symbols, the name of the constructor and the date of its construction , A sign as the indicator of Zarih and its owner, other memphones in Zarih).

The form of a Zarih is cubeic rectangular with variable width, length, and height, which is often a rectangular plan, and at first glance has separated the space inside the tomb from around like a chamber.

Components of Zarih: body and skeleton, stone sculptures, columns, pillars, Reel tips, Quater and bergamot, silver inscriptions, margins relief, golden inscriptions, rickety, decorations nails, vases, paintings inside the Zarih, the fabric on the roof of the grave.

Artistic collection of the Zarih

Traditional painting, drawing, Marsa making, texture, cutlery, rovodisi, stamping and various styles, molding, carving, calligraphy.

The Isfahani designeres of Zarih are: Professor Hossein Parvaresh, Professor Asghar Mobasherpour, Professor Mehdi Zofan, Professor Haj Mohammad Taghi Zofan and Professor Mohammad Ali Farshid, Professor Ali Valiyan, Professor Sayed, Professor Ali Haj Zargar Bashi, Professor of Dinarism.

  • Firoozkubi: Firoozkubi is one of the few handicrafts that has little history and is currently limited in production, which has made Firoozkubi not to be known, although the beauty and attractiveness of a product of well handicrafts is with it.

Firoozkubi dates back to about 70 years ago, and at that time the craftsman named Youssef Hakiman, known as Mohammad Reza in Mashhad, began to work on Firoozkubi jewelry such as bracelets, chest, earrings, etc. And about 20 years later, the industry was taken by another industrialist, Haj Dadash, from Mashhad to Isfahan. At present, the Firoozkubi handicrafts industry is limited to the current ones in Isfahan and industrialists in the field as well as its production.

Firoozkubi in Isfaha, regardless of jewelry is also used in bowls such as a plate, glass, and rosewater sprayer. One of the related works to the Firoozkubi industry is the construction of a “infrastructure” that works in a Zargari workshop separately.

A Firoozkubi product, including ornaments or containers, is an object made of copper, brass, silver or bronze, with turquoise particles sprayed on its surfaces in a mosaic form, thus giving it a special glimpse. Making and finishing of such a product involves two general steps:

  1. A) Zargari
  2. B) Firoozkubi

The Firoozkubi manufacturer at various stages of work also uses tools and equipment, which mainly includes mold, hammer, drill, gas lamp, gasoline lamp, gas nailer, pliers, pins, shavings, various metal pipes, sohan and grinding stone.

The important point in Firoozkubi is, in the first place, the proper installation of turquoise on a metal so that it has enough power and does not separate from the parts of the turquoise, and the longer it is, the more turbulent the turquoise is, and the more regular parts of the stone beside one another is installed and is not widely seen among turquoise parts. Such a  work has more artistic value.