Hamedan

Geographical location

Hamedan province  has an area of ​​19493 square kilometers in west Iran between 33 degrees 59 minutes to 35 degrees and 48 minutes north latitude and 47 degrees 34 minutes 49 degrees and 36 minutes east of the Greenwich meridian.

This province is limited to the provinces of Zanjan and Zavzavin from the north, Lorestan province to the south, and from the east to the central province of Vaz, west of Kermanshah province and part of Kurdistan province.

Economy

  • Agriculture

The basis of the economy of Hamedan province is in the first stage of agriculture and animal husbandry and in the next stage of mining.

Daim land in Hamadan province is more than other parts of the province. In terms of its yield, it has a low level of activity and it has a significant role in reducing the wheat production in the region. In this province, rain and water are used in the province and most of the land is cultivated in dry form. The most agricultural products of Hamedan province are wheat gizzard. After that, they are potatoes and sugar beet. In the mountains there are fruits and grapes, grapes, grains, legumes and grains.

  • Animal husbandry

The livelihoods of this province are more traditional, but with the training of breeding breeding it is possible to produce livestock products. Due to the diversity of the climate, the existence of large ranges of the livelihood of the area for livestock livestock is of particular importance. By creating livestock farming complexes Which operate under the supervision of the Center for the Development of Production and Human Services. Currently, livestock production has increased.

  • Handicrafts

In Hamedan province, craftsmanship has expanded over the machine industry, and its importance has been prominent since the old days. However, colonists have tried to prevent the development of these industries and increase affiliations by introducing similar machineries in the Third World.

The most important handicrafts of the province are knitting, pottery, weaving, embroidered shoes, embroidered dresses and tannery.

Knitted carpets in Hamadan are famous in Iran. Its fine texture is exported to the outside world. Various types of pottery mugs are also exported outside the province, in addition to distribution in the province.

Race, religion and language

1-Race

The people of this province are the most converted settlements in Iran, because in the province of Hamedan, different tribes inhabit different cultures and cultures. They are:

Turks: In the north and west of the province, especially in the north and west of Hamedan, residents reside in 562 villages of the province.

Lor and Lak: These tribes live in the cities of Malayer, Nahwan, and Saman in 255 villages.

Kurds: These people live in 159 villages in the west and northwest and adjacent to Kurdistan and Kermanshah provinces.

Farsi: Most of the inhabitants of the provincial capital are considered to be the oldest inhabitants of this region, which have settled down from the Medes in this land.

In addition to these tribes, Christians and Jews also live in this province.

2-Language

As we said earlier, in this province, different tribes live with their own cultures and cultures. Hence, the dispersion of the language and language in the province is well observed, which are:

Persian language: Most residents of the provincial capital speak Persian.

Turkish language: Most people in the northwest of the province speak Turkish in particular, north and west of Hamedan.

Lori and Lak  language: The inhabitants of Malayer, Nahavand and Saman speak the dialects.

Kurdish language: Most people living in the northwest and west of the province speak Kurdish in the vicinity of the Bactrian and Kurdistan provinces.

3-Religion

Most of the inhabitants of Hamedan province are Muslim and followers of Ja’fari. They are also among the tribes of the province of Sunni religion and there are also people from the right. Religious Christian and Hebrew religions also live in Hamedan province.

Inequality , heights and rivers

Inequality

The inequality of the province has undergone many changes during the geological period. Some of the factors of the ripeness of the province, flowing waters in some areas with high altitudes and the accumulation of materials in the hills have reduced the height of the mountains and the formation of several plains. In some areas, the intensity of the action of the so-called “flowing water” is so large that it has reversed the shape of the ripples, for example, the mountain has become a valley or the deep valley of past periods has now become mountainous. Kuh Khan Karmas in the west of Tuyserkan is an interesting example of this phenomenon. The province’s unevenness has come in many different forms, which is referred to below.

  1. Altitudes:

The altitudes of the province are generally to the northwest of the southeast and are generally in the north, center, and southwest of the province. Each of these heights is part of the mountains of Iran.

1-Northern Highlands:

This mountains are located in the northwestern part of the central mountains of Iran, and they are the border between the province of Hamedan and Qazvin province. The northern mountainous motifs are mainly from external igneous rocks and limestone rocks.

2-Middle altitudes

It consists of the Alvand Jalal Dynasty that begins along the northern altitudes from the western borders of the province and continues to the vicinity of the city of Azandrian near the Hamadan Malayer Road. Alvand Hill is 3574 meters above sea level in this dynasty. The mountains Inner igneous rocks (granite).

In the west of the province and in the north of Hamedan plain, there are altitudes in the highlands that are not very important. These altitudes are mainly composed of crystalline lime. Aliysedr Cave (located 75 kilometers northwest of Hamedan) has been created in this organization.

3-Southern altitudes:

This altitudes known as the Gora Mountains, such as the northern and northern heights of the province, are located to the northwest of the southeast and are part of the Zagros Mountains. These mountains are wall-bounded between the provinces of Hamedan Province and their gens are mainly from limestone. The most significant peak of this mountain called Kuh-e-Vorkhsh at a height of 3639 meters is the border between the provinces of Hamedan Province.

In the southeast of the province, there are also scattered altitudes, the most important of which is the mountain of Sardeh and Khormoeh. The city of Malayer is located in the mountain range of Kuh Garmah.

4-Dispersed Mountains:

 In the northern and middle northern heights of the province, there are some sporadic mountains, including mountainous hot springs in the city of Kaboodarah.

B.Plains:

The plains of the province are split in terms of their appearance.

  • compression Plains.
  • Curonian Plains (Kavoshi).

Compression plains are caused by the accumulation of alluvial deposits in postal areas, and erosion dams have been caused by the destruction and displacement of high-altitude material, the plains of Malayer and Tavarezkan are of a kind of erosion and the rest of the plains of the province are of a congestion type.

The province’s lowest lands are located in Nahavand plain and at the exit point of Gamasiab River from Hamedan province, which is 1420 meters high.

Rivers

The rivers of the province are generally fed from snowy wet seasons, and in summer, plants require water, with the exception of one or two rivers such as Gamasiab and Viminorud, dry or reach the minimum amount of water. The main rivers of the province are:

1-SiminehRood, located in the central part of Hamedan, consists of a series of small rivers and rivers that have water in the event of rainfall.

2-Qareh Chay River (Quri Chayi) originates from the village of Zagheh and the valleys of the Abadi al-Did and Abehndo, and flows to Simina Rud in the land of Amzaajerd.

3-demgh vaydeh loo Rivers from the northern heights of the village of Sardrood and the Khodabandeh Loo and connect to the river Simina Rood.

4-The river and  Farjin from the summit of the Kalag-e- Alvand, and ends in the glade of the hill of the spring.

5-River Mordabig originates from Alvand Mountains and pours into the river.

6-The Simin River originates from the peak of the Lan Alvand Crow, and then, after joining the rivers that flow from the Asadabad and everyone’s reaches, flows into the abyssal alley.

7-Abbas Abad River originates from the valleys of Ganjmany and Tarik valley and leads to the Khak River.

8-The Khakoo River originates from the Alvand Mountain, and after passing through the villages of Khakko, Cheshne, Mozghineh, Garchakhevand onion in the land of Amtazhard to Simina Rud.

9-Asad Abad Cave River originates from Asad Abad and runs past the current Rasoul Abad villages and Gandh Jin. At the proximity of Malek Ashtar Abad, everyone has joined the river and joined the Simone Rood.

10-HameKasi River from  HameKasi river  comes from everyone and then passes through several villages to the Qara-qay River.

11-Derejzn river originates from the southern valleys of the Khoraghan mountains, after passing through the village in the province, it flows into the Qara-Qay River.

12-Shahab River originates from the eastern and western mountains of Chardalli, and after joining the Khosrow Abad village, it joins the Khorram River.

13-Khorramrood originates from the valleys southwest of Alvand Mountains, and then ends up joining the Shahab River to the Gamasiab River.

14-Malayer river (Haram Abad) originates from southeastern southern Malayer highlands, flows to Malayer. Then Malayer Road crosses the Boroujerd road to Nahavand and joins the Gamasiab.

15-Gamasiab River is one of the longest rivers in Iran. The river originates from the southwest of the city of Nahavand. After crossing the Nahavand plain and irrigating the gardens and its surrounding citations, it receives the branch of the Malayer River (Haram Abad) along the Abarabadi Lilly-Yadgar. At the same time as the Golnagar River from the Tuyserkan Connected. Gamasiab is one of the main branches of the Karkheh river. Gamasiab River is called throughout the city of Khorramabad called Seymareh and all the eastern rivers of Kabir Kouh and all the rivers of Lorestan joins it, and after passing from Lorestan to the west of Khuzestan, the current name is called Karkheh and finally ends in the swamp of Horralazim.

16-Khorramrood  is from the northeastern villages of the city of Al-Rand and the altond altitudes, and then from the passage of the Tesarkan will enter the Kongar city. 17. Karnshahr originates from the alley of the Valley, and the limits of Arbakan with the two branches of the Sarabi and the one-way rival of the rival of the rival, the world of lifting, and thus leads to the Gamasib River.

17-Karzan-rood originates from the valy of the village of Goshani and senjoozan and in the vicinty of Arikan , with Two branches of the Sarabi and Sorkan .

weather

The climate of the province is generally influenced by the latitude, altitude, location, mountains and distance from the sea. The movement of air masses plays an important role in determining the type of water in each region. The air masses affecting the province include:

  • Northern masses: This air masses in the cold months of the year is moving from the northern latitudes of the country, affecting the province’s air and reducing the temperature and heavy rainfall in the form of snow.
  • Masses: This air masses in warmer months travels through the southern widths of the country and the region. It affects the country and increases the temperature and decreases or disrupts rainfall.
  • Western masses: These masses enter the country during the wet months from November to June, from the west, southwest and northwest, and require a relative increase in temperature ratio and rainfall in the province

In general, the climate of the province varies as a result of high mountains, rivers, and many springs, and many rivers, and many rivers. Thus, the air of the northern valleys of Alvand mountains is cold and calm in the valleys of the central part of  the mild mountain. The districts of this province are temperate, cold and windy, and its forests are temperate., the climate of the province varies as a result of high mountains, rivers, and many springs, and many rivers, and many rivers. Thus, the air of the northern valleys of Alvand mountains is cold and calm in the valleys of the central part of the mild mountain. Winters of this province are cold and windy, and its Summers are moderate.

Hamedan’s name for the first time in 1100 AH. In the inscription of the first Polissor, the king of Assyria, that it’s Mentioned named by Emdana or Hamedana, but in the Achaemenid inscriptions it is mentioned in Hegmatan and in the Book of Herodotus of the Greek is mentioned Ekbatan.

Jacques Domorgen, writes that the only major city in this area is undoubtedly the Hamadan of the ancient Ekbatan (Hegmatân?), The capital of materials that Herodotus saw in the scrolls of the cuneiform.

Dr Bahman Karimi, says the researcher is that the building of Hamedan did not come to the hands of the first king of Madh (Diaco), Because in the pencil of the first polissor since in the inscription , the name of Hamadana is well-known. It could have added the Diaco to its location and its residense of Governance .

The original name of this city is Hung Matanah or Hakamatana, which means the community is located in the close association. It is written in the Torah that it is composed of Hakhaye Zandi and the Sanaye-e-Pali, which is a branch of Sanskrit, and the Persian language means the Persian language that is the place and place, and the Chamans have been translated into a friendship city, because the kings of Iran in the summer, their friends They were invited to this city. Etemad al-Saltanah was of the opinion that the name of this city was Hamedan, which means meaning, meaning of the Allied Assembly.

historical background

The location of the province of Hamedan, which is considered to be suitable for agriculture and livestock farming, has caused the oldest part of the city to be located and located in the ancient civilizations. There are a considerable number of ancient prehistoric works in the places The results of the studies of the Gayan Nahavand hill indicate that the people living in the province during the 6,000 years before the relatively advanced culture and civilization enjoyed the artistic and Industrial is on the high level. Also, surveys on ancient hills .The location of the Hamedan province, due to its climatic and natural conditions, which has made it suitable for agricultural and livestock activities, has caused the oldest part of the city to be located and located in the ancient civilizations. There is a considerable number of ancient prehistoric artifacts in different parts of the province due to Proof of this claim. The results of the studies and studies of the Gayan Nahavand hill show that the inhabitants of the province have enjoyed a relatively advanced culture and culture for six thousand years if they are artistically and industrially elevated. Also, prospectuses and brief reviews of the artist Fate on the ancient hills of different parts of the province indicates the spread of prehistoric civilizations in different parts of the country and they have lasted for several thousand years. The oldest texts of the Assyrian stone in Hamadan are called Aksia, meaning the city of Kasian, which indicates that the historical background of the center of the province dates back to at least 1000 BC. Natural wealth from the economic and agricultural activities of the tribes living in the western part of Iran, including the tribes located in the Alvand mountain range, which we today know as the province of Hamedan, was such that in the second half of the second millennium to the end of the first half of the first millennium BC For nearly a thousand years, the area was invaded and plundered by the Assyrian troops stationed at northern Mesopotamia, a description of the militants in the region and the conquests and trophies from which significant portions of the scriptural texts were obtained. From the palaces of the Shah of the Assyrians during the years, they gradually form the tribes and In the area at this time most of them were relatives of the Aryan race was material. According to what Herodotus wrote in the Greek historian, materials at the end of the eighth century, led by a person called Diaco, succeeded in establishing a political and military organization and the first powerful government on the Iranian plateau. The city of Hamadan was chosen as the capital city. Under his command, he built vast fortresses, including seven fences in you, each of which was decorated in a special color. The two central fences were arranged with cymbals and the other with golden pillars, and the palaces and the treasury were erected inside the central fence, and the people surrounding the fence Seventeen houses have built their homes. Most scholars in the history and archaeological sciences believed that Pope Hamedan Hegmataneh remained the same strength. However, the agents took revenge for several centuries of murder and massacre of the western people of Iran by conquering Assyria’s Assyrian capital and overthrowing this government. The city of Hamedan enjoyed great blessings during the 150 years of the rule of the Medes, and after the extinction of that state, though it lost its centrality, it was regarded as one of the three Achaemenid capitals. The existence of Ganjnameh inscriptions on the remains of stone columns, Achaemenid palaces, cups and tablets of Zarrin and Simin obtained from Hamadan in this period indicates the importance of this city and region at this time. In 330 BC, the city of Hamedan was destroyed by Alexander the Great But due to its strategic position, it became its military headquarters. At the end of the Seluk period, the city of Hamedan was the site of their many confrontation with the Ashkanians, until finally, in 155 AD, Mehrdad Ashkani seized this city. From the period of Ashkani and Soluki, the stone lion statue and the remnants of a cemetery in the city of Hamedan and brief phenomena of the temple of Laodisseh in the city of Nahavand have remained. Hamadan was one of the last resistance bases of the Parthians against the Sassanid regime. From Arta, the son of Ardavan Fifth, who continued the struggle with Ardeshir Babakan’s army for three years to 230 years against Ardeshir, there is a coin which has a place where Hamedan’s birthplace is 227 AD. Also in the Sassanid period, Hamadan was one of the mint of this government, and several coins of this period have been discovered in this city. In a book written in Pahlavi city called Gobad (500 AD), the construction of Hamedan was attributed to the first round of Yazd, indicating that there were significant construction activities at that time in the city. The city of Hamedan coincided with the invasion of Arabs to Iran and the conquest of it by the Muslims in 645 AD, which was considered important by the Greeks after the conquest of Nahavand, the greatest victory of the Sasanians. In sources the aftermath of the war, Nahavand and the Arab domination, the Iranian’s  governor of the city of Hamedan, established a peace treaty with the Arabs, but the treaty did not continue, and the city fell to Arabs in 646 AD, and gradually some Arabs clustered there From the middle of the third century, the head of the city was headed by Sadat Alavi Kukheedeh, who, as Alawites and then named Ala’-al-Dawla Hamedan, for four centuries, had the status of dignitaries. The valuable building of the Alavian dome is the relic of this period. In the historical sources of the Islamic period, this city is called Hamedan, and it is mentioned as the oldest city of Jabal, and dates back to the mythical era of Iran.. Abu Ali Kateb Hamedani, a third and fourth century AH historian, said about Hamedan: Hamedan was a large and ancient city, but by the time of Islam it remained only from the city (white fort), and some houses near it and the Arabs The castle was called ‘Abyaz’, then it was built as a wall, and it turned away four gates, and for a short time, it added to the palace. In 260 AH, this mansion was the first Alevi chief of the city of Hamedan. In 319 AH, Mardavich Ziyar Bani Al Boyi destroyed many of its inhabitants with the anger and laid the foundations of famous stone lions from the gates of the city. In the year 345 AH, the city suffered a lot from the earthquake, and religious seizures also claimed the lives of many people in 351 AH. In the 4th and 5th centuries, there were many conflicts between the Hasnavid dynasty in Hamadan, one of the main centers of the war between them. He also lived in the city of Hamedan, Bata Taher Isfah and a famous poet during this period. In the years 387 to 412 AH, Shams al-Dawlah Abu Taher Shah Khosrow Dilami ruled in Hamadan and Abu Ali Sina, the Iranian physician and great scientist in the city, held office in his ministry. At the end of the 5th century, the city was the capital of Bojan Jabal. Turkmen ruled Hamadan in 420 and dominated the Seljuq Turkmen since the mid-fifth century. In the 6th century, Hamedan became the capital of Iraqi Seljuq. The attack on the Mongols (618 and 621 AH) destroyed many villages and towns in the province, including Hamadan, and many people died in heroic defenses against the Mongol army. A little later, a settlement in the northern suburbs of the former city called Hamedan. During the period of the Ilkhanis, the city somewhat regained its former significance, and at the time of the Khawaja Ministry, Rashid al-Din Fazlullah Hamedani (718 AH), the city of Hamedan was particularly noted. The Mongol Buddhist coronation was erected there in 695, in order to repair its ruin and prosperity. The Islamic building of Nizar, Esther and Mardkhai, the former tomb of Baba Taher, Imamzadeh of Azhar, Hood, Habqukh Nabi and … of this period. Unfortunately, however, this prosperity did not last long, and Timur Lashkarin captured and destroyed the city. After that, Hamedan was almost forgotten for about 300 years. However, in the Safavid period of the city, the city once again became renowned for its development. The creation of caravansaries, schools, bridges in Hamedan and other parts of the province, including in Tuyserkan, expresses the Safavids’ attention to the development of cities. Among the important buildings of Safavid era, Imamzadeh Hussein, Taj Abad Caravanserai, Khorijan Bridge in Khorijan Village, Jahan Abad Bridge in Famenin, Sheikh Ali Khan Zanganeh School, Farsafaj Bridge and Caravanserai in Tuyserkan and Khosrow Abad Bridge and Water Reservoir in Asad Abad. After the extinction of the Safavid dynasty and the rise of chaos in 1136 or 1138 AH, the city of Hamedan was captured by Ahmad Pasha, the Ottoman guardian, and did not survive a small number of people due to the resistance of the people against the Ottoman altar. Six years later, Nader Shah managed to take the city back from the invaders, but in the fall of 1144, the Ottomans reigned again until finally in 1145 Iran was definitively transferred to Iran under an agreement between Iran and the Ottomans in the city of Hamedan. During the Zandieh era, Hamedan was in the hands of the emirs of that family. In 1193, Ali Muradkhan, grandson of Karim Khan Zand after his death, claimed independence and elected Hamedan as his capital, and the name of his coin was multiplied by Hamedan’s name as Baleh Taybey. In 1205 AH, Agha Mohammad Khan captured and massacred Qajar Hamedan and destroyed its ruins. However, during the Qajar dynasty, the position of the city of Hamedan was gradually stabilized. The rehabilitation of the market and the mosque of Hamedan of Tuyserkan and Malayer are the relics of this period. .

During the First World War, the city of Hamedan, villages and other cities of the province periodically invaded the Russian, Ottoman, and British forces, and Hamedan was the headquarters of their armies. Hamadan at the same time suffered a severe famine. English Jackson, who visited Hamadan in 1903, writes that the city is divided into four districts or districts in the administrative affairs, in which Harryk is a separate criminality, and this code is in charge of the ruler and his job is virtually hereditary. He adds that there are more than 500 high-quality shops in the Hamedan market, and besides this market there are more than 50 innings that are in the forefront of providing the necessary objects and equipment for a large number of merchants and villagers who are passing through this city. And their work is booming, there are also sixty high-profile public hot tubs in this city.

Advantages of city of Hamedan

  • The centrality of the province and its proper location in terms of geographical, tourist attractions and the concentration of government agencies and institutions
  • The existence of universities and higher education institutions active and numerous as the most important developmental
  • Crossing the national gas pipeline from the province and easy access to energy sources from other cities
  • Hamedan placement on the international air corridor from the Turkish Gulf of Europe and commercial route UL223
  • Positioning on the ground link of western provinces with the center and south of the country and having transportation facilities.
  • Focus and willingness to attend specialist and capital in this city compared to other cities in the province
  • Existence of good agricultural lands in the city and the ability to expand gardens and greenery in the city
  • The presence of craftsmen and professors, experimental and machine-building engineers, and the provision of technical and repair services, industrial and mining machinery by these individuals.
  • Mining and potential of decorative stones (gabbro, granite) silica and industrial lime
  • Approximately suitable settlements and industrial areas
  • Ability to expand the conversion industry to fit the agricultural products of the city
  • The presence of raw materials for handicrafts (wool, wood, leather) and skilled craftsmen (leather and tannery, traditional dyeing, clay, seven-tone decoration, crochet, pottery, ceramics and ceramic painting). , Carvings, glass cutters, traditional instruments, embossed, mosaic and lattice, decorative flowers by ladies
  • Airport presence with the possibility of international flights

  • The existence of cultural, scientific and political figures at the international and national level
  • Choosing the city of Hamedan as the capital of Iranian history and civilization
  • Choosing the city of Hamedan as one of the centers for the development and strengthening of 12 countries through the creation of Science and Research Park and Information Technology
  • International Film Festival for Children and Young People