Gilan province, from the northern provinces of Iran to the central city of Rasht. The province is connected to the Caspian Sea from the north and has a blue border with the countries of the marginal sea, and through Astara is also a land border with the Republic of Azerbaijan, from the west to Ardebil, from the south to Zanjan province and Qazvin, and from the east Mazandaran province is limited. The area of Guilan is 14, 044 km2 and its population is 1391, 2, 480, 874 people.
geographical location(Gilan province):
Gilan Province is one of the northern provinces of the country with an area of 14711 square kilometers. This province is 36 degrees 33 minutes to 38 degrees 27 minutes north latitude and 48 degrees and 32 minutes to 50 degrees and 36 minutes east of the Meridian line .
Its length( Gilan province) from the northwest to the southeast, 235 km and its width, varies from 25 to 105 km. The Alborz mountain range with an average height of 3000 m is drawn like a wall in the west and south of Gilan, and this area, other than the Manjil valley, has no other way to the Iranian plateau. The minimum distance from the Caspian Sea (in the Havigh section of Talesh city) is about 3 km and the maximum distance from the sea (in Imamzadeh Hashem, Rasht-Qazvin Road) is about 50 km and has a coastline of 300 km. This province is limited to the north to the Caspian Sea and the Republic of Azerbaijan, west to Ardabil province, south to Zanjan province and Qazvin, and east to Mazandaran province. According to the latest divisions, Gilan province has 16 cities, 52 towns and 43 districts, 109 villages and 2583 villages. The cities of Gilan province are Astara- Astana AashrAFiyeh- Amlash-Bandar Anzali- Talesh – Rasht- Rezvanshahr- Rudbar- Rudsar- Siahkel- Shaft- Sumee_Sara- Fouman- Lahijan- Langroud -Masal.
Geology(Gilan province) :
Gilan’s province soils:
A large part of the province of Gilan is the Gilan plain formed by the sediments of the Sefidrud River, and another part of the province, which includes its southern side, is mountainous. Hence, a variety of plain soils, mountain peaks in the area.
A – Plain soils of Gilan province cover the vast majority of agricultural land in the region. Types of plain soils that are found in the province. These include coastal sands, sedimentary soils, saline soils, relatively related and semi-wetlands and marsh soils that are subsequently investigated.
- Coastal sand located in the northern regions of the region and at the confluence of the Caspian Sea is part of the Chaldeh of Gilan, which has no crop vegetation in the near-sea areas. While on the farther side, due to the formation of humus and the creation of adhesion in the soil particles that allow water to be maintained and plant growth, plant growth occurs in these soils. However, these soils do not have much crop ability and are often used as a pasture.
- The sedimentary soils of the Gilan plain, which are derived from the sediments of the rivers of the region (mostly white sand), have a very low slope and suitable drainage, are very good for farming and are in the best of the land. These soils are found in the eastern, northeastern and northern parts of Rasht, and are often cultivated in rice, fruit trees, tobacco and summer products.
- Wet Grass soils, relatively damp, and semi-wetland soils constitute another part of the Gilan plains. Wet and relatively wet skin soils are often used for rice cultivation. These soils are unusable in some places to the surface of groundwater, which sometimes reaches the surface of the earth, and are often pasture land. These soils are seen in the coastal areas of the Caspian Sea.
B-Northern slopes of Alborz are covered with soils. These soils, which are usually fairly deep, are suitable for farming in areas where the slope is less. The main types of these soils are red, yellow and brown soils.
- Red and Yellow soils: There is a thin layer of plant remains on these soils. These types of soils should be covered with vegetative cover if they have a large slope to prevent them from burning due to natural factors. At present, these soils are cultivated in some areas such as tea and wheat, and in some places also used as pasture.
- Forest soils: These soils have modest texture and surface covered with plant remains. The soils are seen in Fouman and south of Lahijan.
C– The mountainous soils of the region, which form the major part of the soils of the province, are located in the highlands of the province, and these soils can not be used for agriculture due to gradient and are mainly covered with dense and densely populated forests.
Some of the highest peaks of the province are:
- Shah-e- teacher or Dokhaharan in the city of Fouman, 3090 m
- Chakan 2963 m located in Rahimabad district in Rudsar city
- Chakneh 268 m located in the central part of Rudbar city
- Mount Diga of 2611 meters located in the city of Rezvanshahr
- Arksar 2523 m located in the Chaboksar district of Rudsar
- Mount Lerineh 2510 m located in Amarlou district of Rudbar city
- Mount Dali Hafteh_khooni 2471 m located in the city of Islam city of Talesh
- Darfak 2705 m in the city of Sinkhkal
- Noghre_dag 3450 m in the city of Talesh
- Tilar 2620 m in the city of Talesh
- Troshum 2635 m in the city of Fouman
- Ghand-e-kalleh 2550 in the city of Fouman
The three regional air flows that cause precipitation in Gilan include:
- High pressure Siberian Flow
- Scandinavian flow
- The Mediterranean Flow
In addition, local streams that usually have local names include:
- Biroonrawa – Wind that flows from the north of the lagoon.
- Sertok – Northeast wind.
- Khazari – Wind north and northwest that is cold and stormy.
- Biroon _gillewa – it causes rain in the winter and autumn.
- Dehtawa – from the northwest.
- Khoshkewa – from the east of Anzali wetland.
- Gramish (germch-Garmsh), which flows from the Alborz to the coastal plains and increases the heat of the environment in the shortest time several degrees and can cause fires in the woods, villages and cities. As well as the Wind Manjil, which runs between Rustamabad and Loshan and part of the Gizlazan valley. From other local winds of Gilan, it should be mentioned from his black-eyed boshe-dried-up-bay Wak and Kutim-wa.
The climate of the Gilan province is temperate due to the impact of the mountainous climate of the Alborz and the Caspian Sea. Due to its proximity to the Caspian Sea, the province is a region with a high humidity and relative humidity of 40-100 percent. The dry season is not long lasting for a year (about a month from mid-June to mid-July), and often it rains. Rainfall is not occurring in all areas of the province.
The highest fall in the plain area is due to Bandar Anzali and at least rainfall is near Roodbar, Lushan and Manjil. The ice days are short and dispersed, and the cold rarely exceeds 1 degree.
Among the provincial cities, Astara is the coldest and the best of Antarctica. While Lahijan is more desirable than other parts of the province, the warmer winters and cooler summer, Gilan province has twelve synoptic meteorological stations. Record atmospheric data (temperature, wind speed, number of freezing days, rainfall, relative humidity …) at synoptic stations located in Bandar Anzali, Rasht, Sangar, Astara, Manjil, Lahijan, Talesh, Jiranda, Masouleh, Bandar Kishahr, Dilman and Rudsar.
History of Gilan:
The Gilan(province), named after the” Varna” in the Avesta, is an ancient tribe of various tribes, the most famous of which are Gil and Dilam. The Greeks call the land “Cadosian.” Some scholars find the Cadosian from the natives of Iran prior to the arrival of the Aryans to this land. According to the Russian dioecum, about three thousand years ago, the Caspian rainforests of the Cadosian and Gilan (Giles) were located in the north of Med. The gills gradually became one of a kind with the Cadets. The Gills were also completely independent during the Medes’ rule; Achaemenid Cyrus with the help of gills destroyed the Median government.
In the late Qajar period, Gilan became known as the gateway to Europe, and in the constitutional movement, the Gilani people played an important role in the achievement of the revolution.
The people of Gilan have always been free people and during the struggles of the Islamic Revolution, along with other compatriots in its victory tried and in this direction, Hojat AL-Islam Shahid Sayyed Younes Rudbari, who was the first martyr of the Islamic Revolutionary Movement, and during the imposed war, Gilan with the Revolutionaries of the Commanders And the emirs managed to provide a number of more than 8,000 martyrs, 2620 Azadeh and 21,200 devotees from their descendants.
The history of Gilan is based on some archaeological finds and excavations dating back to the last glaciation (between 50 and 150 thousand years ago). With the migration of the Aryans and other ethnic groups to the land, there were new peoples from the immigrants and indigenous peoples, with the majority of the Gil and Deylam populations. From the beginning, the rulers of this people have enjoyed complete freedom and have never surrendered to foreigners or against other rulers, and have not even come to terms with the obedience of the Mud state. In the sixth century BC, the Gilans united with Achaemenid Cyrus and overthrew the Median government. At the time of the Sassanid, Gilan lost its independence, and Ardeshir Babakan captured an army of 300,000 warriors and nearly 10,000 Gillan riders.
After the Muslim Arabs triumphed over Iranians, Gilan became the mausoleum of the Alawites. In about 290 AH, the people of Gilan and Deylam began to convert to the Alevis religion and made great efforts to expand it. The Dylan dynasty ruled during Baghdad rule and defeated the Abbasid caliph. The Mongols succeeded in capturing the land for a short time at the time of Oljaytou. The Gillans played an important role in the rise of the Safavids.
During the reign of Shah Abbas 1 , Gilan lost his independence. In 1071 AH, the Russian forces invaded Gilan on the orders of Peter_Great, and held Rasht by occupation in 1145 AH. Gilka also played a major role in the victory of the Constitutional Revolution. They conquered Tehran in 1287 AH. The role of the people of Gilan in Mirza Khan Khan forest is also one of the brilliant examples of the history of this land.
Population and it’s density:
According to the census of 1390, the population of Gilan province is 2480874, 61% urban and 39% rural. In terms of population density, Gilan province is second only to Tehran province.
Several factors such as favorable weather conditions, moisture and fertile soil, the presence of permanent water networks and abundant and diverse agricultural facilities and the expansion of communication routes have caused severe congestion in this province.
Relatives in Gilan:
The two concepts of nation and nation have long been used in Persian language, but have not had any meaning and definition until the last century, but today they are called the set of adherents of a nation, and there are groups in each nation that differ in terms of language, culture and land. These groups are called “folk”.
In the province of Gilan, there were different tribes living today that are not seen by many tribes today due to the natural, historical, political, migration and massive links of the last century between the province and the rest of the country. These relatives are:
- Cases (Caspies)
The name of the Khazar Lake which in English, is called Caspian, is derived from the name of the Caspian people. Since the carriers lived near the village of Dorfak, the name Dorfak peak was taken from the name of this people.
With this description, it can be said that the dominant is Gilan Gilak, and then the Talesh, Turks, Kurds, and Lor, respectively, have the highest population in Gilan province, respectively.
Gilan people of dialect:
Gilaki dialect includes tensile and grasping languages, Gurani, Gilaki and Mazandaran, and some Tati and Semnani languages, and from the historical point of view these languages are related to the Parthian language.
Gilaki is close to the middle Persian language and is one of the Iranian languages and one of the branches of Pahlavi language, which is actually considered as the mother tongue of Gilan people. Gilaki itself is divided into several branches. As far as the east and south of Gilan province go, the dialects differ slightly.
Talashi dialect in the west and northwest of the province, especially on the Iranian-Azerbaijani border, some speak the language. This language is one of the northern languages of Iran, which has been popular in the Azeri territory since ancient times (about the 10th century AH), and since then its place in one of the Turkish dialects.
In addition to the national language, in addition to the national language (Persian), several native languages are spoken in dialects and dialects such as Gilaki, Taleshi, Tati and Turkish, which are located in the south of the province in the city of Rudbar, Aram, Khor, Lak, Tat and Gilak, and in the north of the province. In Talesh, Rezvanshahr, Gilak, Talesh and Azeri tribes, and in Astara, the Azeri, Gilak and other Gilan people are based in Gilak.
Although religion in Gilan is a national Shia-e- Eleven imami citizen, in its sixteenth cities, the three cities of Rezvanshahr, Talesh and Astara have the highest population of Sunnis, and a few residents of the Gilan province based in Rasht, Bandar Anzali, have Christian, Jewish, And Zoroastrianism.
The most famous local foods in Gilan:
Chicken Fesanjan or Chicken Lako, Mizra Ghassemi, Baghelaghtegh( Chakra Baghli), Torshe_Tare, Sirghelya, Alumosma, Fibeiyeh Fish, Wawishka, Torsh_Shami, Calkabab, Bornei Eggplant, Spinach Borne, Beetroot, Olive, Spinach (Fish Caviar) Salted fish, Mahidudi, Anarabiyeh, Shoshandaz, Siberian, Shirin Tar, Khaloo Abe, Chakhshmatma, Nazkhatun, Loongi, Moton Jan.
Museum of Anthropology of Rasht, Fuman Museum, Guilan Rural Heritage Museum, Lahijan Museum, Museum of Wildlife and Anthropology of Masouleh.
Traditional customs and customs in Gilan province:
Nowruz celebrations in Gilan are based on various rituals and ceremonies:
Nowruz reads from the last ceremonies of the year in Gilan. The neurology, which is now more or less commonplace, in Gilan is the symbol of the arrival of spring and blessing. To do this, a group of Nouroohun read aloud and read poetry. The most famous of these poems can be referred to as “Dada Imam” and “Bride Golet”.
Most neurologists read the twelve imams first and repeat it twice, and then read Nowruz and the New Year.
The show “The Gole Bride” was also celebrated before the New Year’s Eve. This show, with rhythmic singing, had certain moral and ritual concepts. The actors of the show were usually three, and appeared to be the role of giants, pearl babes and cute ladies. Most often, Cana performed the role of a young boy wearing a women’s dress.
Another ancient Persian ceremony in Gilan, with some minor changes, is “Wednesday”, which runs on the last Tuesday of the year and Wednesday night. For this purpose, thorns, bushes, straw and straw were gathered, and by burning up the stacks that usually came to the qiblah and then burned them, they fired from the fire.
The last Nowruz ceremony is thirteen years. On this day, the people of Gilan go further along the rivers and in the woods, and in the group celebrate the last day of Nowruz. Girls of Gilani knit on this bride’s day. The ceremony is usually accompanied by a hangman, a ghilly ship and a musical instrument.
The Yalda night is also a special occasion in the ancient Persian ceremony in Gilan. The first night of the dawn every year comes from family, relatives and sometimes neighbors to hold the ritual of the night. For chapel occasions, you will often have a lot of snacks and snacks and nuts. Watermelon brings to the table of this night another color and smell, and if anyone who eats watermelon at night, he does not feel thirsty in the summer.
Mourning month of Muharram:
The people of Gilan, like the people of other regions of Iran, have special customs for the mourning of Hussein bin Ali (AS). People try to go to their birth place on the ninth and tenth day of Muharram and attend mourning ceremonies with their relatives and acquaintances. Rawzah Khvani, Shinzani, Chain, Forty Mezhdar, Dinner, Strangers, Tease, etc. Among the mourning ceremonies in Muharram are the people of Gilan.
This wrestling is the reminders of the people of the people are the ongoing phase and have roots in history. The “glossy” of the “gloss”, the pillar, the pilot, or the Darvarar. This cultivation is held in the enclosed armies called “Desert” or “Section”. The crop of a glossy is more in the summer and festivals and wedding. The shoes are losses of Laspar, who is close to it and they first show respect to their audiences, then they will take their power with their dramatic movements.
This method has been in the name of the game, the game, the wound, the revolution, the play and the pad in Iran. The roles of the game in this sport are: Bandabasia, a Benbazi, who is Wordstan, is a devil and the inadequate woman. In this game, he is held at the time of the celebrations and the invitation of the people, the pillar, by mentioning prayer to the Lord, goes on Lebanon, and walks with a wooden with her balance. On the base of the base, he puts her face and says the place of laughing people who makes it harder to make people.
Gilan is due to the rich nature and cultural heritage of Iranian tourism poles, which will raise millions of tourists from around the country, including the village of Masollah and the Rudkan Castle in Fuman, the city of Lahijan (the capital of the Islamic world of Iran), Anzali and Astara’s markets.
The Gilan’s Souvenirs is divided into two categories of food and crafts. Broadfish and animal products, birds, fish, jam, jam, and wooden, crafts, wooden and richey are such as Guilan souvenirs. The Guayanian souvenir, especially rural artifacts, is highly linked to the customs and traditions of its builders, and the function of the geographical conditions is environmentally. The most important and best souvenir puppies are common: white fish, tea, cuffle, peanuts, rice, rice, and penetration. In different areas, in particular, the creamy of the elderly and the surroundings, Shalbafa, and is by commons in the efforts and the goldshamia and the garment of the migraine is common in Masuleh. It is also commonplace and bamboo, carpet and glorifies in different regions. Towers are interested in beautiful gear articles.
History and culture of the province
Gilan province is a provincial with a cultural background whose history of seven thousand years is evidence of this fact. Mountain, plain and sea are the geographical features of the province that has made it a tourist destination in a region. Also, special characteristics of the cultural point of view also have had a great influence on the province. Gilan has long been a place for celebrities such as Mirzakuchak Khan Forest, the late Ayat A. Mohammad Taghi Behjat Foumani from the authorities of Iran, Seyyed Mohammad Baqir Shafti of the Shiite world names, and Saeed Lahiji, a painter and unusual designer of the Zarrineh and Semenah, who built the Tawas Tree on the orders of Jahangir Khan Babri, Kikavos Zyari of the Kings of the Scientist Al Ziarou is the owner of the book Qaboos-letter, Sharaf Darawi, poet and great mystic, M Košar Gilani Ria Famous Iudan and Astronomer, Kiyomars Saberi (Gol Agha), Faymani Faymani, Poez Golani poet, Shamsuddin Mohammad Lahiji from the elders of Dar al-‘Elm Lahijan during the rule of Qayyayan, Professor Reza, Professor Samiya Dr. Moin, Dr. Behzad, However, the education of residents of Gilan , The existence of different universities and libraries, the rural population of over 49%, the almost traditional context of the province and the adjacent to Central Asian countries are cultural characteristics of the province.
Rites and ceremonies that take place throughout the life of a person in a lunar year and a solar year in connection with productive activities and livelihoods. Such as the marriage ceremony, the ceremonies of the month of Muharram and zero, Nowruz and its ceremonies and Hymari and …..
Local games and sports, such as: The game of deer (East Gilan), the wardrobe (play laptops), the mirror, the guillemans, the horse riding women, ….
Local and indigenous dishes such as: Baqalakatag, Mirzakasmi, local feshmand with bird and ham, Chicken kebab with soaked dumplings, and onions and raw raspberries (salted whitefish), sour chicken, pomegranate sauce, barbecue sauce and …
Traditional music in different parts of Guilan follows both the variety of songs, and in terms of the characteristics of melody and rhythm of different styles.
The coverage of the Gilan people is similar to other attractions in different parts of the province.
Arts and Handicrafts
- Chargh (Chamoush Douzzi)
- Weaving a night tent
- Joinery and Woodturning
- Carpet weaving
- -Pottery and ceramics
- Financial Felt
- Bamboo weaving
- Silk crochet on the piece
- Woolen handmade products
- Alloy doll production
- Weaving marmalade
- Embroidery products
- Fabric doll making
- carpet weaving
- Production of miniature paintings and mosaics
- Mat weaving
- Weaving scarf
Gilan province with about 0.9% of Iran’s total area, 92.1% tea, 37.6% rice, 76.2% hazelnut, 85.1% silk, 60% peanut, 21.4% olive, 2.7% Citrus fruits, 13.4% sturgeon, 4% chicken meat, 5.1% red meat, 22.4% freshwater fish and 15% caviar in the country.
This province(Gilan) has a port for loading and unloading goods with a capacity of 6.5 million tons per year, as well as having a free trade zone with six different types of utilities and an international airport and three regional customs offices active and also under construction. , 200 km of railway between Qazvin-Rasht-Anzali to complete the north-south corridor has a special advantage and in all sectors of economy it has the capability of domestic and foreign investment, and the platform for economic activities is ready and ready. Here are the various advantages of the province:
Geographical Economic Advantages:
Enjoyment a privileged position in Jogging and staying on the Nostrack Corridor.
Neighborhood with Central Asian countries through Earth and Blue.
Enjoyment natural resources and densely populated forests and prone climate and fertile soil of agriculture and unique Anzali wetland and beautiful beaches.
Permanent rivers and rivers of Sefidrud, Pole Rood, Korgranrood, Shafarood and …
The existence of the Anzali Special Zone (which has become the Industrial Free Trade Zone with the approval of the Majles Islamic Council).
Commercial and agricultural hub since long ago.
Temperate climate and beautiful nature.
Sea access to the ports of Astrakhan and Lakan Russia.
A short journey through Gilan.
Productive and economic advantages:
One of the country’s industrial hubs, especially in the agricultural and maritime industries, as well as in the cellulosic and textile industries (among the top ten provinces of the country).
Having raw materials for the development of conversion industries.
There are large industries such as paper and textile and steel.
The existence of settlements and industrial areas in different parts of the province.
Skilled, educated and ready-made labor in various economic sectors
Cheap energy sources such as water, electricity, gas …
There are 4 power plants in Loshan and Rasht and Manjil water power plant and Manjil Wind Power Plant and extensive power distribution and transmission networks in the province.
Fuel tanks up to 200 million liters, kerosene, gasoline and gas oil to Gilan, Ardebil and western Mazandaran.
Enjoy extensive transportation networks, Rasht International Airport and Anzali and Astara ports.
The existence of a common border market with Azerbaijan.
The existence of universities and vocational training centers and industrial and agricultural research institutes provide skilled and expertly trained human resources in the province.
Implementation of the program of office automation and the creation of the necessary physical and critical infrastructure for the development of information technology (ICT) in the central province.
Qazvin-Bandar Anzali Railway construction plan.
Port and shipping facilities in Anzali area.
The existence of an investment service center in the province.
A plan to create a permanent exhibition of services and goods.
Having a vast network of financial, monetary and credit institutions (public and private).
The existence of public and private organizations in the field of commercial and economic services such as the chamber of commerce, industries and mines, the house of industry, the Association of Industrial Directors and …
There are two customs in Anzali and Astara as well as the customs of Rasht Airport.
Having silos, warehouses and convenient refrigerators.
The possibility of land assignment for investment in economic activities.
Access to the 300 million Central Asian market.
The province’s facilities for domestic and foreign investors in various economic sectors:
Support and assistance in obtaining the necessary permissions
Granting facilities as much as possible
Assistance in establishing units in the cities and industrial areas of the province
Having skilled and expert workforce
Provide advice in various fields
Mineral and semi-industrial resources
The existence of investment service centers
Creating a suitable platform for establishing the necessary networking of financial, monetary and credit institutions with investors.
Establishing facilities for transit, domestic and foreign transportation of manufactured goods, raw materials and semi-manufactured goods.
Creating a suitable field for cooperation between public and private organizations in the field of commercial and economic services such as the Chamber of Commerce, Industries and Mines, House of Industry, the Association of Industrial Directors and the Merchants Association with investors.